Assessment Of Radiation Risk Of Some Telecommunication Base Station In Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Assessment Of Radiation Risk Of Some Telecommunication Base Station In Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku


Abstract


The study explored the health risks perception among residents living within range of telecommunication base station in delta state polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Consequent on this, the study examined the extent of health risk knowledge available to the residents. It sought to determine whether the residents are aware of the attendant health risks associated with radiation emitted by telecommunication base station in their locality. the researcher chose the mixed method. Specifically, the mixed approach involved a quantitative and qualitative aspect; whereas the quantitative aspect of the study was survey, the qualitative aspect was focus group discussion (FGD) with a sample size of 663. The findings of this study indicate low awareness and knowledge as well as low precautionary practices in regard to radiations from dappling telecommunication base station among residents in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku of Nigeria. The study had suggested the need for a massive and sustained public enlightenment campaign regarding the health risks associated with radiations coming from telecommunication base station as recommendation


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1. Background to the Study
  • 1.2. Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3. Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Testing of Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of the Study
  • 1.8 Scope of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Limitation of the study
  • 1.11 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.3 Empirical Review
  • 2.4 Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1. Research Design
  • 3.2. Area of Study
  • 3.3. Population of the Study
  • 3.4. Survey
  • 3.4.1. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.4.2. Instrument of Data Collection
  • 3.4.3. Measurable Variables (Operational Definitions)
  • 3.4.4. Pre-test of instrument
  • 3.4.5. Data Collection Procedure
  • 3.5. Focus Group Discussion
  • 3.5.1. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.5.2. Instrument of Data Collection
  • 3.5.3. Method of Data Collection
  • 3.6. Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.7 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Result Presentation

  • 4.1. Survey Data Presentation
  • 4.4. Testing of Hypothesis
  • 4.5. Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1. Summary
  • 5.2. Conclusion
  • 5.3. Recommendations
  • 5.4. Suggestions for Future Studies
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX 

Chapter One


Introduction

In modern society, telecommunication has played a significant role in the development of many nations culturally, socially and especially economically. Similarly, telecommunication plays an important role in the world’s economy. Worldwide telecommunication industry’s revenue will grow from $2.2 trillion in 2015 to $2.4 trillion in 2019; a combined average growth rate of 2.3 percent, according to a new report (Internet World Stats, 2017). For effective and efficient deployment, use and growth of the telecom-services, service providers must deploy, erect and install in and around the country telecommunication base station, towers and base stations to disseminate and disperse information and data services to end-users of these services. In a recent statement, Bashir Gwandu, the acting Executive Vice Chairman of Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) pointed out that “We cannot have telecommunication services without putting telecommunication base station and towers around the country because we don’t have infrastructure in place like other countries, we don’t have fibre and wired lines across the country” (Next Newspaper, 2011).

The provision and erection of these towers (masts) within the country; which are a sine qua non for availability of telecommunication services including internet for fast-tracking business and government cum social services, is not without some issues and concerns from a wide range of quarters. Apart from the legal and administrative issues arising from control over its erection, the presence of the telecommunication mast has engendered serious issues bothering on health, business and environmental concerns. These concerns are even more complicated in developing countries like Nigeria with limited technical and scientific capabilities to regulate and/or mitigate possible health hazards associated with ultra-violet emissions or radiations from the telecommunication base station (Edewor & Imhonopi, 2013; Husain, Gwary, Yusuf & Yusuf, 2017).

The health risks most times are not unconnected with the indiscriminate erection of the telecommunication base station in especially residential areas, and perhaps, without strict compliance with standard regulations guiding such activities by the telecommunication service providers. Given the current global interests, concerns, and increased advocacies for environmental sustainability, espoused in the 2000-2015 Millennium Development Goals and the current 20152035 Sustainable Development Goals, the issue of Environmental Sustainability ranks tops as it is a concern for both the developed Western countries and the developing countries. Scientific evidence has documented some dire consequences of exposure to ultraviolet emissions either from the sun or other electromagnetic objects capable of emitting radiation substances. Such consequences include cancers and other health challenges (Akintonwa, Busari, Awodele & Olayemi, 2009). Though opinions on the health hazardous effect of dappling telecommunication base station in particular are polarized, there is a high possibility that human exposure to a certain degree of radiation is a serious health risk (Levins, O’Meara, Ruhotina, Smith & Delaney, 2015). It therefore became germane to ascertain the perception of residents in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku on the health risks of dappling telecommunication base station situated in their areas.


1.1. Background to the Study

According to Akintowa et al. (2009), more than 100 years ago, scientists discovered that many elements commonly found on earth occur in different configurations at the most basic (atom) level. These various configurations (called isotopes) have identical chemical properties, but different physical properties. In particular, some isotopes (known as radioisotopes) are radioactive, meaning that they emit energy in several different forms. This energy emission is what we call radiation (Akpolile & Osalor, 2014).

Radiation is energy given off by matter in the form of rays or high-speed particles. All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are made up of various parts; the nucleus contains minute particles called protons and neutrons, and the atom’s outer shell contains other particles called electrons. The nucleus carries a positive electrical charge, while the electrons carry a negative electrical charge. These forces within the atom, Osibanjo (2009) explains, work toward a strong, stable balance by getting rid of excess atomic energy (radioactivity). In that process, unstable nuclei may emit a quantity of energy, and this spontaneous emission resulting in radiation.Radiation, therefore, takes place when the atomic nucleus of an unstable atom decays and starts releasing ionizing particles, known as ionizing radiation. When these particles come into contact with organic material, such as human tissue, they will damage them if levels are high enough, causing burns and cancer. Scientific evidence shows that ionizing radiation can be fatal for humans (Akin & Adeniji, 2014; Levins et al., 2015).

Over time, we have come to think of radiation in terms of its biological effect on living cells. For low levels of radiation exposure, these biological effects are so small that they may not even be detectable. In addition, the human body has defence mechanisms against many types of damage induced by radiation (Akintonwa et al., 2009).

Consequently, radiation may have one of three biological effects, with distinct outcomes for living cells:

  1. Injured or damaged cells repair themselves, resulting in no residual damage;
  2. Cells die, much like millions of body cells do every day, being replaced through normal biological processes; or
  3. Cells incorrectly repair themselves, resulting in a biophysical change.

The exact effect depends on the specific type and intensity of the radiation exposure. In general, however, a 3-millirem exposure imposes the same chance of death. And all these are a possible occurrence with dappling telecommunication base station (Levins et al., 2015).

The associations between radiation exposure and cancer are mostly based on populations exposed to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation (e.g., Japanese atomic bomb survivors and recipients of selected diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures). Cancers associated with high dose exposure include leukemia, breast, bladder, colon, liver, lung, esophagus, ovarian, multiple myeloma, and stomach cancers. Literature from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2004) also suggests a possible association between ionizing radiation exposure and prostate, nasal cavity/sinus, pharyngeal and laryngeal, and pancreatic cancers.

Those cancers that may develop as a result of radiation exposure are indistinguishable from those that occur naturally or as a result of exposure to other chemical carcinogens. Furthermore, Eriksson-Backa (2014) observes that evidence from literature indicates that other chemical and physical hazards and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet) significantly contribute to many of these same diseases.

Although radiation may cause cancer at high doses and high dose rates, public health data do not absolutely establish the occurrence of cancer following exposure to low doses and dose rates below about 10,000 mrem (100 mSv). Studies of occupational workers who are chronically exposed to low levels of radiation above normal background have shown no adverse biological effects. Even so, the radiation protection community conservatively assumes that any amount of radiation may pose some risk for causing cancer and hereditary effect, and that the risk is higher for higher radiation exposures (Gazmararian et al., 1999).

A linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-response relationship is used to describe the relationship between radiation dose and the occurrence of cancer. This dose-response model suggests that any increase in dose, no matter how small, results in an incremental increase in risk. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepts the LNT hypothesis as a conservative model for estimating radiation risk (Ifc, 2007).

According to Taylor and Todd, (1995), although many radioactive materials are silver-coloured, metallic solids in their pure state, they can vary in color and exist in different physical states, including liquids and gases. They are also physically indistinguishable from other (nonradioactive) metals. In addition, ionizing radiation is not detectable by one’s senses. It cannot be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or felt. For these reasons, simple visual inspection is insufficient to identify radioactive materials, and radiation sources can be virtually impossible to recognize without special markings. To address these problems, scientists (Wilson, Mood & Nordstron, 2010) have developed the following four major different but interrelated units for measuring radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These can be remembered by the mnemonic R-E-A-D, as follows, with both common (British, e.g., Ci) and international (metric, e.g., Bq) units in use:

  • Radioactivity refers to the amount of ionizing radiation released by a material. Whether it emits alpha or beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, or neutrons, a quantity of radioactive material is expressed in terms of its radioactivity (or simply its activity), which represents how many atoms in the material decay in a given time period. The units of measure for radioactivity are the curie (Ci) and becquerel (Bq).
  • Exposure describes the amount of radiation traveling through the air. Many radiation monitors measure exposure. The units for exposure are the roentgen (R) and coulomb/kilogram (C/kg).
  • Absorbed dose describes the amount of radiation absorbed by an object or person (that is, the amount of energy that radioactive sources deposit in materials through which they pass). The units for absorbed dose are the radiation absorbed dose (rad) and gray (Gy).
  • Dose equivalent (or effective dose) combines the amount of radiation absorbed and the medical effects of that type of radiation. For beta and gamma radiation, the dose equivalent is the same as the absorbed dose. By contrast, the dose equivalent is larger than the absorbed dose for alpha and neutron radiation, because these types of radiation are more damaging to the human body. Units for dose equivalent are the roentgen equivalent man (rem) and sievert (Sv), and biological dose equivalents are commonly measured in 1/1000th of a rem (known as a millirem or mrem).

Because radiation from nuclear material is strictly regulated, humans seldom experience large doses (~50 rem) of radiation. Nonetheless, lower doses can still damage or alter the genetic code (DNA) of irradiated cells. Moreover, high radiation doses (particularly over a short period of time) have a tendency to kill cells. In fact, high doses can sometimes kill so many cells that tissues and organs are damaged immediately. This, in turn, may cause a rapid whole-body response, which is often called “acute radiation syndrome” (WHO, 2014).

In general, the higher the radiation dose, the sooner the effects will appear, and the higher the probability of death. (The time between radiation exposure and cancer occurrence, for example, is known as the “latent period”). This syndrome was observed in many atomic bomb survivors in 1945, as well as emergency workers who responded to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Approximately 134 plant workers and firefighters battling the fire at the Chernobyl power plant received high radiation doses of 70,000 to 1,340,000 mrem (700 to 13,400 mSv) and suffered acute radiation sickness. Of those 134, 28 died from the radiation injuries that they sustained (Levins et al., 2015).

Although radiation affects different people in different ways, it is generally believed that humans exposed to about 500 rem of radiation all at once will likely die without medical treatment. Similarly, a single dose of 100 rem may cause a person to experience nausea or skin reddening (although recovery is likely), and about 25 rem can cause temporary sterility in men. However, if these doses are spread out over time, instead of being delivered all at once, their effects tend to be less severe (Levins et al., 2015).


1.2. Statement of the Problem

With the advent of the global system on mobile (GSM) telephony in Nigeria, several challenges have been thrust forth especially with the attendant economic ties. One of the identifiable marks that define the GSM surge in the country is the avalanche of telecommunication base station that apparently dot every inch of the landscape. This has elicited divergent concerns from different stakeholders with some observing that the masts pose great health risk and others suggesting that they do not. The proponents of the limited hazards to health by the telecommunication base station contend that such fears about mobile phone masts, power cables, and communication equipment in general are perpetuated by sensationalist newspapers and are often misguided (Grasso, 2008; Ifc, 2007; Cherry, 2000; Bond & Wang, 2005;Otubu, 2012; Hamblin & Wood, 2002). The opponents (such as Osibanjo, 2009) on the contrary argue that there are specific aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum that are harmful (eg. ultraviolet rays, gamma radiation, extended exposure to x-rays), and much of the rest is safe and has no effect on our health. Although, their arguments point to the fact that extent of health risk associated with telecommunication base station rays are much at a minimal level compared with the ultraviolet rays from the sun, there still exist possibilities for health risks as a result of exposure to radiation masts rays (Hamblin & Wood, 2002).

Therefore, the need exists to determine how people feel about dappling telecommunication base station in the neighbourhood and the challenges radiation from telecommunication base station pose to humans within the vicinity where these masts are erected. The inherent issues of interest here then are, whether radiation from telecommunication base station is a threat to human life, if individuals are aware of the risks associated with dappling telecommunication base station and also their perception of it. This consideration made a research of this nature germane.


1.3. Purpose of the Study

This work explored the health risks perception among residents living within range of telecommunication base station in delta state polytechnic Ogwashi-Ukuthe South-South geopolitical zoneof Nigeria. Consequent on this, the study examined the extent of health risk knowledge available to the residents. It sought to determine whether the residents are aware of the attendant health risks associated with radiation emitted by telecommunication base station in their locality. And also to ascertain if they take health action to guard against potential health condition from exposure to radiation from the masts. In more precise terms,


1.4 Objectives of the Study

The study pursued the following objectives:

  1. To determine the extent of the residents’ awareness of health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station;
  2. To determine the extent of their knowledge of health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station;
  3. To find out the residents’ source of information on health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station;
  4. To ascertain their level of practice of precautionary measures against the health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station;
  5. To ascertain demographic variables that influence knowledge and compliance in regard to health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station.

1.5 Research Questions

In view of the foregoing research objectives, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What is the level of awareness among residents in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku regarding the health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station?
  2. What is the residents’ extent of knowledge of the risks associated with these dappling masts?
  3. What are the residents’ sources of information on health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station?
  4. What is their level of practice of precautionary measures against the health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station?
  5. What demographic variables influence knowledge and compliance in regard to health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station?

1.6 Testing of Hypothesis

  • H1: If residents are aware of the health risks associated with exposure to radiation emitted from telecommunication base station then they would take health action to guard against health conditions as a result of such exposure.
  • H0: If residents are not aware of the health risks associated with exposure to radiation emitted from telecommunication base station then they would take health action to guard against health conditions as a result of such exposure.

1.7 Significance of the Study

Since the erection of telecommunication base station have become a common phenomenon in the country, this study is significant to the regulatory agencies, health communication experts and stakeholders (lessors, lessees and residents) in the telecommunication business. For regulatory agencies, it will help them to monitor telecommunication companies who are not compliant to the regulations of setting telecommunication base station in order to take appropriate action.

For Health communication experts, the result of this study will help them in the design and implementation of effective health communication that will help the society grapple with attendant implications of radiation from dappling telecommunication base station. For lessors the findings will benefit them in having a better knowledge and understanding on the kind of site/land that can be leased to telecommunication companies for the erection of masts in line with the appropriate standards.

For lessees, it will help them to have adequate information on the kind of land/site to lease and erect telecommunication base station according to requirement of regulatory agencies, for resident, this study will give them a better understanding of radiation from telecommunication base station and debunk the general idea that those living within the vicinity are heading to their grave. For leesors and the general public (especially residents living within range of the masts), this study will serve in enlightening them as to the dangers of their closeness to dappling masts, this way, possibly eliciting precautionary response from them.

The study on a general note, will contribute significantly to existing literatures and the body of knowledge.


1.8 Scope of the Study

This work was limited to exploration of awareness, knowledge and compliance in relation to health risks associated with radiation of dappling telecommunication base station in Nigeria. Hence, data collection and analysis were restricted to the following variables: awareness/knowledge, information source, compliance and influence of demographic variables on knowledge and compliance.

Furthermore, the study was limited to residents living within close radius of telecommunication base station in the capital cities of the states within the South-South of Nigeria. This was further restricted to adults among the residents given the nature of the variables being investigated.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Certain key terms were recurring in this study; for purposes of clarity, the researcher defined these terms as follows:

Awareness:

The state of knowing that there are health risks associated with living close to dappling telecommunication base station. It involves being conscious of the fact that exposure to radiations from telecommunication base station poses health hazards to humans.

Dappling:

Crowded telecommunication base station in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku, Nigeria. It has to do with clusters of masts located where humans are living.

Health Education:

This involves telling and teaching the people about their health and how best to manage it. Teaching basic health behaviour that enables the citizens to cultivate healthy habits and teach same to their offspring. It is a key step towards attaining health literacy.

Health Literacy:

The ability of the citizens to understand the stimuli on health issues and decode same for effective management and control of health situations that might arise. It is a product of effective health education and health promotion.

Health Promotion:

Health promotion involves a conscious approach towards educating the citizens on best health practices through all forms of media even before the outbreak of a contagious disease. Effective health promotion leads to health literacy.

Implications:

The attendant positive or negative outcome arising from the location of the masts to the people and include social, health, economic, environmental and cultural; in other words, the effect of such indiscriminate location of masts on humans.

Influence:

The likely impact and extent of effect that occur from the effective or ineffective application of surveillance campaigns in prevention and controlling disease. It is the outcome of adequate or inadequate preventive intervention in human health including communication-based intervention.

Knowledge:

One’s extent of understanding regarding the health risk associated with living close to dappling telecommunication base station. As differentiated from awareness, it involves deeper appreciation of the risks and precautionary measures against them.

Perception:

One’s assessment or judgment regarding the health risk associated with living close to dappling telecommunication base station. It denotes a person’s evaluation of such risks; their existence, nature and how vulnerable he/she is to them.

Radiation:

A type of dangerous and powerful energy that is produced by radioactive substances and nuclear reactions from telecommunication base station in South-South, Nigeria. These emissions constitute danger to the health of humans, especially when one is exposed to them to a certain level.


1.10 Limitation of the Study

There is no study undertaken by any researcher that is perfect. As such this study may not be perfect and subject to the efficiency of the data gotten from respondent who may chose to not be truthful.


1.11 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters.

  • Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study and finally the organization of the study.
  • Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework.
  • Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.
  • Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings.
  • Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1. Summary

This study assessed the risk perception among residents in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku Nigeria in regard to radiation coming from dappling telecommunication base station. In more specific terms, the following objectives were pursued: to determine the extent of the residents’ awareness and knowledge of health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station; to find out the residents’ source of information on health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station; to ascertain their level of practice of precautionary measures against the health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station; and to ascertain demographic variables that influence knowledge and compliance in regard to health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station. The researcher employed the mixed method approach encompassing a quantitative aspect (survey) and a qualitative aspect (focus group discussion, FGD). The area of study was Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku, South South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A total of 663 respondents were selected from the region for survey while 12 discussants were selected for two FGD sessions of six persons per session. After the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data, the study found that there is low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with dappling telecommunication base station among residents in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku. However, it was also found that mass media and the Internet are the major sources through which the residents gain information on health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station. Nevertheless, there is low practice of precautionary measures by the residents against the health risks associated with radiation that comes from dappling telecommunication base station. The study further discovered that awareness of health risks associated with radiations coming from dappling telecommunication base station seems to be influenced by gender, marital status, level of education and state of residence. Also, their knowledge of these risks is probably influenced by their gender, level of education and state of residence; while their practice of precautionary measures is likely influenced by their age, level of education and occupation. Hypothesis testing indicates that if the residents are aware of the health risks associated with exposure to radiation emitted from telecommunication base station, then they would take health action to guard against health conditions as a result of such exposure.


5.2. Conclusion

The findings of this study indicate low awareness and knowledge as well as low precautionary practices in regard to radiations from dappling telecommunication base station among residents in Delta State Polytechnic Ogwashi-Uku of Nigeria. This result leads to the conclusion that these residents are a very vulnerable group as far as the health implications of situating telecommunication base station close to human residents are concerned. This vulnerability is linked to their low knowledge which resulted in their inability to perceive the risk involved and acting accordingly. Akin and Adeniji (2014) observe that the essence of health information is to reduce an individual or community’s vulnerability to health hazards as being armed with such information makes one vigilant and encourages positive attitude that undermines health vulnerability.

Against the foregoing, one could safely affirm that the situation whereby there is poor knowledge and awareness leading to absence of risk perception and precautionary practices in relation to health hazards of telecommunication base station among the residents presents a potentially precarious health scenario. This conclusion stems from the fact that such disposition increases the residents’ vulnerability to the stated risks (Akin & Adeniji, 2014; Husain, Gwary, Yusuf & Yusuf, 2017).


5.3. Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study and observations from literature, the following recommendations are made by the researcher:

  1. There is need for a massive and sustained public enlightenment campaign regarding the health risks associated with radiations coming from telecommunication base station. Such campaign should be executed through the mass media, religious groups, conferences and seminars. This will help improve people’s awareness and knowledge, thus reducing their likelihood to engage in risky behaviour.
  2. Concerned regulatory bodies such as the NCC and NESREA should ensure adequate and strict enforcement of applicable environmental regulations in regard to erection of telecommunication base station. This is one way of addressing the health risks attendant on the spread of telecommunication installations around the country.
  3. The nation may also need to review her town planning laws in order to address the problem of encroachment on areas within the designated range of telecom infrastructure as a result of change in demographics. For instance, such review should restrict development around areas with already installed telecommunication base station.
  4. The mass media, in their report of environmental and health matters, should also give adequate attention to issues of health and environmental risks associated with situating telecommunication base station close to people’s residents. Such reportage would serve as a form of advocacy for appropriate response from the authorities as well as an enlightenment for the populace.

5.4. Suggestions for Future Studies

  1. Replicative studies should be conducted in other parts of Nigeria and even sub-Saharan Africa with the view to comparing findings and further validating the results of the present study.
  2. Research on similar study should aim to improve on what has been done here through expanding the scope of the study by way of a larger sample size, larger geographical scope and so on. This way, the results of the study could be more generalisable.
  3. A content analysis version to this study should be conducted. This time, the focus should be on analysing and ascertaining the content of the media in regard to news and other content focusing on the environmental and health implications of situating dappling telecommunication base station close to people’s location. This would complement the survey study done here and as well potentially improve our knowledge of the subject matter on focus.

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