An Assessment Of Public Impression On Nigeria Police Force On Fraudulent Act (A Study Of Force Head Quarters Abuja)

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An Assessment Of Public Impression On Nigeria Police Force On Fraudulent Act (A Study Of Force Head Quarters Abuja)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the public impression of the Nigerian police force on fraudulent act using the force head quarters, Abuja as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of police officers in the police force head quarters, Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force is low.The study also revealed that the public have no positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police. Furthermore, the Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers. Therefore, it is recommended that in partnership with concerned agencies, the Nigerian government and police administration may seek and adopt methodologies that other prosperous nations have used to defeat police corruption while taking the Nigerian political, economic and social contexts into cognizance. Also, the Nigerian Police force should organize seminars that will re-orientate its members on the need to entrench the codes of conduct and the integrity of the police force.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The police are state personnel who are in charge of ‘law enforcement and order maintenance’ in society. To carry out these dual tasks, the police have the authority to use force, even violence. The use of force or violence by police is governed by national constitutions and statutes, international conventions and rules, police departmental instructions, and professional ethics. Despite these laws, the police in most nations employ force and brutality that exceeds the legal limitations.

It is a well-known fact that the cops are your buddy. In a country like Nigeria, however, the opposite is true. It is clear that the average public views the police officer negatively and does not consider him to be a friend (Omilana, 2019). Police officers around the world are governmental authorities tasked with enforcing the law and maintaining social order. When carrying out their duties, the police may be entitled to use reasonable force when necessary. The Federal Republic of Nigeria’s constitution, the Police Act, international agreements, professional ethics, and other regulations control and constrain the use of force by police in carrying out their statutory tasks. Despite these regulations, the police in many societies resort to using extreme force beyond the limits permitted by law in carrying out their duties, grossly disregarding the rule of law and resorting to extra-judicial killings, torture, and subjecting civilians or citizens to all manner of inhumane and ill-treatment; unfortunately, these are the same citizens that they have previously sworn to protect (Segun, 2016).

The provision of security is one of the primary goals of any nation’s government. The function is underlined in the Federal Republic of Nigeria’s constitution of 1999, which states that “the security and wellbeing of the people shall be the fundamental aim of the government” (Segun, 2016). The government delegated the job of maintaining internal security to the Nigeria police in order to fulfill this role. The Nigerian police are mandated by law to prevent and detect crime, maintain peace and order, and enforce all laws and regulations. They are expected to carry out these responsibilities properly and successfully. With the country’s high rate of insecurity, the question on everyone’s mind is if the police accomplished these tasks as anticipated of them. The majority of individuals believe that the Nigerian police fall short of their performance criteria. They observe a toothless dog who can only bark and not bite. Odekunle (2014) claimed that there is no need to establish the Nigeria police’s non-performance in the current situation. Rather, what is required is the identification of the fundamental deficiencies, issues, and impediments that are causing the scenario. The Nigerian police force is an integral aspect of the country’s civil society. As a result, in addition to the myriad problems that have hampered their performance over the years, they have human problems that not only compound its material deficiencies, but also have a significant negative impact on its overall performance from one day to the next (Odekunle,2004).

One of the challenges facing national development and economic growth in Nigeria is corruption. The former military regime of 1983-1998 justified their overthrow of the government on the basis of corruption. In addition, the former President, Olusegun Obasanjo, during his first term inauguration speech identified corruption as “the country’s biggest problem, that pervades all aspects of human life: from the home to both public and private institutions” (Igbuzor, 2008& Adebayo 2005:94). The corruption has become a widespread phenomenon that has deeply permeated into the core of society and has almost become the normal way of life. Inokoba & Ibegu (2011) have observed that “corruption generally has eaten so deep into Nigeria‘s body politics that its practice is seen more like a societal norm than an exception.” People have internalized the belief that hard work, honesty and integrity, which contribute to the essence of human kind, are no longer worthy principles since one can do very little to get or earn so much. Corrupt practices in Nigeria include bribery, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, favoritism and nepotism (Aluko, 2009). These practices have affected national development, political stability and good governance resulting in severe hardships, a high rate of unemployment, the aggravation of poverty and inequality, and poor service delivery, for instance in the provision of electricity and water.

The Police is one of the most important institutions in the society. They are entrusted with the right to protect the citizen even when that involves the use of violence. More is expected of the Police than most modern professional jobs. They are expected to be brave and not show any human emotion like fear, shock, surprise, etc even in the face of serious tragedies like death, deformity, etc. Undoubtedly, peace, safety and security are both necessary and indispensable requirements for development and the attainment of good quality of life for any human society. They provide the requisite enabling environment for citizens to live and work towards social, economic and political development of the society (Groenewald & Peake, 2004). The significance of peace, safety and security to mankind cannot be over-emphasized as the socioeconomic and political development of any society depends on the security system available in such society. By the same token, their absence stifles the human capacity to develop and heavily compromises the development and quality of life of both individuals and society. Furthermore, insecurity impacts negatively on all citizens through losses of property, life and limb, or through loss of confidence from fear of violence. It is against this backdrop that the delivery of safety and security is considered a justifiable public good and the very essence of the state (Lubuva, 2004). Human safety and security are indeed human rights having a value of their own and serving an instrumental function in the construction of human contentment and prosperity (Odinkalu 2005)

The Nigerian Police Force (NPF), in spite of the major role they are required to play in protecting the public and in the maintenance of law and order, are often viewed by the public as a corrupt institution. This is because there are daily reports in the media of abuse by the police. The corrupt practices within the police department in Nigeria is so endemic that despite the numerous efforts made by the government in policy and regulatory control, corruption remains difficult to manage. The failure of the government strategies to reduce corruption makes the issue of police misconduct an ethical challenge.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian Police Force (NPF), in spite of the major role they are required to play in protecting the public and in the maintenance of law and order, are often viewed by the public as a corrupt institution due to their rampant engagement in fraudulent acts. This is because there are daily reports in the media of corruption by the police (Inokoba & Ibegu 2011). The inherent corrupt tendency of its rank and file, Allegations are rife of police officers demanding bribes from offenders, allegations of the police demanding money from traffic offenders, etc. more so, denting the image of the force prevents it from efficiently performing its duties. The failure of Nigerians and the persistent reluctance of the public to report crimes no doubt contribute to the inefficiency of the force. Many people are afraid that an honest citizen who reports a crime, instead of being praised, is at times turned into a suspect. Because of the attendant repercussions regarding this, many citizens may watch a crime taking place and yet turn a blind eye to it (Okoh, 2019). Another shortcoming of the force is lack of disciplinary measures taken by the force on culpable agents found guilty of engaging on fraudulent actions. This has made the public to loose total trust in the system.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to assess the public impression of the Nigerian police force on fraudulent act using the force head quarters, Abuja as a case study. Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. Determine the prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force.
  2. Determine whether the public has a positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police.
  3. Determine whether the Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers.
  4. Determine whether the Nigerian Police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of its code of conduct and integrity.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force?
  2. Does the public have a positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police?
  3. Does the Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers?
  4. Does the Nigerian Police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of its code of conduct and integrity?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial for future research and will add to the body of knowledge. It will educate policymakers about the critical nature of quick reforms to the Nigerian Police Force. It will raise the government’s pressure to supervise the Nigeria Police Force’s activities continuously to ensure that officers do not exceed their authority or engage in fraudulent acts.

Additionally, the findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, NPF, individuals, NGOS, and academia on the extent of police engagement in fraudulent acts and the effects it has on the citizens.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on the assessment of public impression on Nigeria police force on fraudulent act. It will precisely be focused on determining the prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force, determining whether the public has a positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police, determining whether the Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers, and determining whether the Nigerian Police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of its code of conduct and integrity.

This research will be carried out in the police force headquarters in Abuja using selected police officers.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study will be limited to the assessment of public impression on Nigeria police force on fraudulent act. It will precisely be limited to determining the prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force, determining whether the public has a positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police, determining whether the Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers, and determining whether the Nigerian Police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of its code of conduct and integrity.

This research will be carried out in the police force headquarters in Abuja using selected police officers, thus the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Assessment:

The action of assessing someone or something.

Impression:

An idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, especially one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence.

Fraudulent Acts:

Deliberately deceitful, dishonest, or untrue.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the public impression of the Nigerian police force on fraudulent act using the force head quarters, Abuja as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force, determine whether the public has a positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police, determine whether the Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers, and determine whether the Nigerian Police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of its code of conduct and integrity.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were police officers in the police force head quarters, Abuja.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of fraudulent acts among the Nigerian Police Force is low.
  2. The public have no positive impression of the extent of fraudulent acts carried out by the Nigerian police.
  3. The Nigerian police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of police officers.
  4. The Nigerian Police force’s engagement in fraudulent acts influences the public impression of its code of conduct and integrity.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. In partnership with concerned agencies, the Nigerian government and police administration may seek and adopt methodologies that other prosperous nations have used to defeat police corruption while taking the Nigerian political, economic and social contexts into cognizance.
  2. The Nigerian Police force should organize seminars that will re-orientate its members on the need to entrench the codes of conduct and the integrity of the police force.
  3. The relevant/concerned authorities in Nigeria should ensure that the police officers are adequately paid and timely.

An Assessment Of Public Impression On Nigeria Police Force On Fraudulent Act (A Study Of Force Head Quarters Abuja)


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An Assessment Of Public Impression On Nigeria Police Force On Fraudulent Act (A Study Of Force Head Quarters Abuja)


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Frequently Asked Questions


Can public relations reposition the image of the Nigerian police force?

This research work assesses public relations as a tool for repositioning the image of the Nigerian Police Force using the Lagos State police command as a study. Over the years the Nigerian police have experienced public scorn and apathy due to unprofessional conducts, extra judicial killings, lack of commitment amongst others.

What is wrong with the Nigerian police?

Over the years the Nigerian police have experienced public scorn and apathy due to unprofessional conducts, extra judicial killings, lack of commitment amongst others.

Is the image of Nigeria force good or bad?

Although many argue that the image of Nigeria Force over the years has not been a good one.

What are the best books on police management in Nigeria?

Alemika, E.E. (2010). Repositioning the Nigerian Police to meet the Challenges of AkwaIbom, Uyo. management in Nigeria. Enugu ACCE (Nigeria chapter) and Prime Targets Limited. strategies, Suny Press, Albanj. Effectiveness and Ethicality of Image Reprint Strategies in Crisis S ituations.” Grunning, J. and Hunt, T. (1984).

What is public relation unit of Nigeria Police?

Although the Force Public Relation Unit of the Nigeria police has done a lot in managing the image of Police, more work needs to done to achieve a better image. … … Propounded by Frank Jefkins in 1988 this theory is built on using public relation enlighten the various publics of an organization about the positive attributes.

What is wrong with the Nigerian police?

Over the years the Nigerian police have experienced public scorn and apathy due to unprofessional conducts, extra judicial killings, lack of commitment amongst others.

Is the image of Nigeria force good or bad?

Although many argue that the image of Nigeria Force over the years has not been a good one.

Does image management strategy affect public perception of the police?

Officer (image management strategy) has positive effect on public perception. other institutional inadequacies. However, members of the Nigerian police debunked the bad image of the police.

Which is the best book on policing in Nigeria?

Roberg, R., Crank, J. and Ku ykendall, J., (Eds.) (2000). Police and Society, Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company. Tamuno, T.N. et al. (Eds.) (1993). Policing Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future, Lagos: Malthouse Press. …

How to build an efficient and effective police force in Nigeria?

Recommendations on how to build an efficient and effective police force in Nigeria were proffered to include among others good governance, adoption of new strategic ways of policing and security, and creating police reforms.

What are the challenges of policing in Nigeria?

In this century, policing in Nigeria faces a lot of challenges. Thus, police work requires a combination of special characteristics. But personnel with the following qualities: able to carry out the difficult servi ce role mandated for law enforcement officers. policing in Nigeria.

What is the history of the southern Nigeria Police Force?

By 1906, Johnson (2014 stated that the “southern Nigeria police force” was created from Lagos police force and part of constabulary of Niger coast; with the bulk of the constabulary Niger coast remained as “southern Nigeria regiments” to operate the southern Nigeria. 

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