Assessment Of Problem Solving Strategy In Social Studies And It’s Effects On The Academic Performance Of JSS Students In Social Studies In New Bussa Metropolis

Social Studies Project Topic

Assessment Of Problem Solving Strategy In Social Studies And It’s Effects On The Academic Performance Of JSS Students In Social Studies In New Bussa Metropolis


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine problem solving strategy in social studies and it’s effects on the academic performance of JSS students in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. The study was specifically set to ascertain the extent the teachers adopt the problem solving strategy in teaching and learning of social studies in New Bussa Metropolis, determine whether the problem solving strategy enhances the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis, ascertain whether the adoption of problem solving strategy enhances the learning outcome of student in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis, and ascertain whether the adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of the 6 selected junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 150 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent the teachers adopt the problem solving strategy in teaching and learning of social studies in New Bussa Metropolis is low. Furthermore the study also revealed that the adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. Therefore it is recommended that secondary school teachers should be encouraged in using effective teaching method in the classroom, especially in the use of problem-solving methods in teaching social studies in junior secondary schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

It is a matter of grave concern for educational stake-holders that the level of achievement and commitment of students to learning is reducing day-in-day-out. One of the major causes identified is the ineffective teaching of the school subjects including Social Studies. It was also noted that most of the students of nowadays are very lazy and too playful. They can hardly identify and solve problems that come their ways by themselves. They mostly rely on parents, teachers and elders to solve problems for them. May be during teaching/learning processes, teachers have not been giving them challenging tasks that could enhance development of thinking skills and creative activities.
Social Studies, as the study of human beings in their physical, social, economic, spiritual, scientific, political, cultural and psychological environment, needs to be taught effectively (Fadeiye, 2005). However, problem-solving as a method of teaching that gives room for interaction with materials, asking of questions and criticism of issues should also arouse interests in and enhance basic understanding of the subject. Obebe (1981) and Adewuya (1989) carried out different researches on the knowledge of contents and teaching methods in Social Studies in Teacher Training Colleges and Secondary Schools respectively. They discovered that lecture method had negative effects on students. Such effects include lack of motivation, inability to cover the contents of the curriculum, negative attitudes towards the subject and low achievement on the part of the teachers and students.

Ipaye (1991) stated that conventional lecture method is not effective in achieving the aims of teaching Social Studies. Ipaye (1991) arrived at the conclusion that performance of Nigerian students in West African School Certificate Examinations (WASCE) had been progressively bad. He therefore, suggested that professional teachers should experiment with new methods of teaching to stem the tide of poor performance in examinations. Adewuya (2003) also established the fact that the rate of absorption in junior secondary schools is as low as 20 to 30% as a result of lecture method used to teach in schools. Abdu-Raheem (2010) also concluded that lecture method is ineffective in teaching Social Studies in secondary schools in Nigeria.

Problem-solving involves techniques such as questioning, sorting, field trips, interviewing, brainstorming, role-playing, projects, use of resource persons, library search and other creative activities (Adewuya 2003). All these techniques open up students to problem-solving activities such as critical thinking, searching for more knowledge, analyzing, investigating and collating issues and ideas, formulating hypotheses, experimenting guesses and collecting and analyzing information (Adewuya, 2002).

According to Joyce, Well and Calhoun (2000), inquiry/problem-solving is a learning process whereby questions are created or problems are developed by the students based on facts and observations examined logically. Iyamu and Otote (2007) confirmed that inquiry/problem-solving is a whole complex of instructional phenomenon in which the teacher makes use of a variety of methods and activities that encourage students‟ active involvement in the generation of their own knowledge. Craig (2001) defined a problem as any situation where one has an opportunity to make a difference or to make things better. Problem solving is converting the actual current situation into a desired future situation. He explained further that the acts of creative and critical thinking about ways to increase the quality of life or avoid a decrease in quality are acts of problem solving. Problem-solving approach to teaching usually involves an interest approach, a description of teaching objectives, identification of the problems to be solved, actual problem solution, testing of the solution and an evaluation of the solution (Newcomb, McCracken, Warmbrod & Whittington, 2004). Mann (2001) also agreed that it is essential to develop awareness in the students that they themselves have the reason why a solution is not being found to a particular problem. He pointed out that if the teacher moves from a problem towards a solution, the students will be in the dark until the last moment.

Ayeni (2007) reported that problem-solving approach is used to identify particular issues and raises questions on them, hypothesizing possibilities and seeking evidence to establish facts in educational research. In support of the above ideas, Hermann (2007) recommended brainstorming or mind-storming at the first stage of problem-solving, even before defining the problem. He explained further that brainstorming requires using the creative hemisphere of one‟s brain before the logical hemisphere takes over. Mistry, White & Berardi (2006) concluded that the area of probem-solving skills is considered a high priority skill area, even in post-graduate studies development.

Herrman (2007) equated preference dominance to creative problem-solving. He believed that dominance or cognitive thinking processes or preferred modes of knowing have advantages in quick response time and higher skills level. Douglas and Kristin (2000) agreed that students can learn both new concepts and skills while solving problems. Jimoh (2001) also supported the idea that problem-solving method develops students‟ interest in critical thinking and evaluative reasoning. Abdu-Raheem (2010) concluded that if the steps required in the use of problem solving method of teaching such as identification of problem, observation, interpretation, manipulation and creativity, are properly utilized, students‟ achievement will increase drastically. Orimogunje (2008) emphasized the need for using an innovative strategy such as problem-solving to correct the mismatch of post-primary Social Studies with the traditional lecture method. In support of the above idea, Bandele (2003) confirmed that the health of classroom interaction is dictated by the quality of instructions given during the actual lesson periods. Sotonwa (2003) explained that good teaching matters in raising the standard of education and the achievement of students. Ekanola (2007) concluded that problem-solving is designed to facilitate both knowledge acquisition and utilization.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Observation shows that many teachers still rely heavily on the traditional lecture method of teaching Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Thus, poor performance of students in the subject has been a major concern to many stakeholders in the subject. Like any other subject, the syllabus of this activity based subject emphasis the use of activity-based method of instruction. Unfortunately, as reported by researchers such as Lakpini (2006) and Lawal, (2009) teachers shy away from activity-based teaching method and rely mostly on easy goes lecture method which in most cases are often inadequate and inappropriate for meaningful learning to take place. However, students continue to perform poorly in social studies subject. Hence the question of how students’ academic performance in social studies can be improved is still a pedagogical problem. It is on this note that the present study is aimed at examine the problem solving strategy in social studies and it’s effects on the academic performance of JSS students in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the problem solving strategy in social studies and it’s effects on the academic performance of JSS students in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. This study was conducted with the following specific objectives:

  1. Ascertain the extent the teachers adopt the problem solving strategy in teaching and learning of social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.
  2. Determine whether the problem solving strategy enhances the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis.
  3. Ascertain whether the adoption of problem solving strategy enhances the learning outcome of student in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.
  4. Ascertain whether the adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent the teachers adopt the problem solving strategy in teaching and learning of social studies in New Bussa Metropolis?
  2. Does problem solving strategy enhances the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis?
  3. Does the adoption of problem solving strategy enhances the learning outcome of student in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis?
  4. Does the adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • Ho: The adoption of problem solving strategy does not improve student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.
  • Ha: The adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be of immense benefit to social studies teachers, curriculum planners, Ministry of Education, teacher training institution and researchers and psychologists. The outcome of this study will expose social studies teachers on how effective problem solving strategy in promoting learning, which help to minimize student’s low achievement in the subjects. Since guided problem solving strategy is interaction-oriented, it will equally enable them see the need why they should ensure that their classes posses qualities of guided classroom which include being democratic, and allowing active participation of learners. In a class where all these qualities exist, students will be active, inquisitive and will be able to transfer what they learnt in the classroom to real life situation The findings will be of use to the curriculum planners, to plan social studies curriculum in such a way that the contents will be filled with activities which teachers and students will do together. The federal ministry of education and other researchers will through this study organize workshops, seminars and conferences for review of pedagogy in teaching to address the issue of integrating new ideas on teaching of social studies. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on problem solving strategy in social studies and it’s effects on the academic performance of JSS students in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. However the study will be delimited to 6 selected secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis viz; Borgul junior secondary school (BJSS), Federal government secondary school (FGC), New Bussa Government secondary school, Dogongari Women day secondary school, Niffr secondary school, and Ubandoma secondary school.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching:

Teaching often involves inquiring, listening, providing information, explaining a phenomena, showing a skill or process, testing understanding and ability, and enabling learning activities

Social Studies:

Can be defined as the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on problem solving strategy in social studies and it’s effects on the academic performance of JSS students in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine problem solving strategy in social studies and it’s effects on the academic performance of JSS students in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis. The study was specifically set to ascertain the extent the teachers adopt the problem solving strategy in teaching and learning of social studies in New Bussa Metropolis, determine whether the problem solving strategy enhances the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis, ascertain whether the adoption of problem solving strategy enhances the learning outcome of student in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis, and ascertain whether the adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of the 6 selected junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent the teachers adopt the problem solving strategy in teaching and learning of social studies in New Bussa Metropolis is low.
  2. Problem solving strategy enhances the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in New Bussa Metropolis.
  3. The adoption of problem solving strategy enhances the learning outcome of student in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.
  4. The adoption of problem solving strategy improves student academics performance in social studies in New Bussa Metropolis.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should continue to home their skills by attending workshops seminars and other teaching enhancing programmes that can enable them be on top of their game, Teachers should be aware of the right teaching methods to apply in teaching when one method is not effective since a combination of methods is considered most appropriate.
  2. Secondary school teachers should be encouraged in using effective teaching method in the classroom, especially in the use of problem-solving methods in teaching social studies in junior secondary schools.
  3. School owners and administrator should employ qualified teachers, train and retrain them from time to time so that they can meet up to the set standards.
  4. Government should provide incentives that can boost the educational sector which the schools fait under in terms of infrastructure and basic amenities like, Water table, electricity supply, desks and chairs, chalk boards improved toilet facilities etc.

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