An Assessment Of Principal’s Gender And Teachers’ Work Behaviours In Post-Primary Schools In Edo State
1.1 Background Of The Study
The fundamental objective of every educational organization is for its pupils to achieve good academic achievement. This can not be accomplished without a positive working relationship between principals and instructors who will appropriately and devotedly teach and direct these children. Because the teacher is the primary implementer of the curriculum in the school, student performance is heavily influenced by the instructor’s actions and reactions, often known as the teacher’s work behavior. Teachers’ work behaviors are those actions, activities, and reactions of teachers in a school system while discharging their duties. To buttress his points, Ekundayo, H. T. (2010) also noted as expected behaviors of teachers: adaptability, attractive-personal appearance, breath of interest, carefulness, considerateness, cooperation, and dependability. He concluded that teachers should be positively motivated, knowledgeable, competent, dedicated and disciplined. He concluded that these five major parameters for measuring teachers’ work behaviors can only be determined under the close supervision of a principal or leader in the school system.
The principalship has been defined as the position held by the chief school leader, who takes decisions for the school and also influences the teachers to carry out duties that will lead to the achievement of the decisions taken. Some principals find it difficult to influence teachers in their duties in school. According to Emeghara (2007), some factors that hinder principals from influencing teachers’ work behaviors include; gender issues, exposure/experience, leadership style, and indiscipline. The recurring factor that seems to affect principals more is the issue of gender. An influence, affecting both the study of leadership and the practice of administration, has been the controversial proposition that men and women bring systematic differences to their leadership styles. It has been argued that, because of their early socialization processes, women have developed values and characteristics that result in leadership behaviour that is different from the traditional aggressive, competitive, and controlling leadership behaviour of men. Some authors contend that women typically bring to administrative positions an approach to leadership that is consistent with developmental, collaborative, and relationship-oriented behaviors. These behaviors are seen as more compatible than traditional male behaviors with the idealized view of leadership. Consequently, it is anticipated that women will be more effective administrator-leaders than men.Other theorists and researchers believe that there are no systematic gender-related differences in the leadership behaviors of men and women. They argue that, given an equivalent level of responsibility within an organization, women and men exhibit the same leadership behaviors. Any gender-related differences in leadership behaviors that might have been found by some researchers are ascribed to rater bias. Gender bias between the sexes exists in Nigeria. It has hindered and continues to hinder development generally. Such gender differences manifest in the following areas: dissemination, exclusion from development programmes, legal and customary barriers to owning properties, systematic violence against women, poor quotas on political appointments, and so on.
Female teachers are fast increasing in number and are ascending to the position of principalship. Emeghara (2007), outlining some factors that hinder principals from influencing teachers’ work behaviors, explained that female principals find it difficult to influence the behaviors of their autocratic male vice-principals and teachers, especially if such a principal is a laissez-faire leader, who uses fewer supervision strategies and allows everyone to take decisions by themselves. If such poor perceptions are noted in the school, it might be an evil wind that would do no one any good. This is because the performance of students, which is placed in the hands of teachers and principals, may be affected. Knowing that the performance of students depends highly on the teachers’ work behaviour and that no student can perform better when the teachers’ work behaviour is not positively influenced by their principal, the researchers therefore investigated teachers’ work behaviors with reference to the principal’s gender.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
In the past, women were constrained by cultural practices and religious beliefs from being educated or holding public offices in Nigeria. Today, many women are educated and hold highly rated offices like Vice Chancellorships, Directors General, Ministerial positions, and the like. The era, prior to the Civil War in Nigeria, marked a period of teachers’ strong commitment and diligence to duties. That era appeared to be when principals of secondary schools were mainly males. Currently, things have changed. The number of male and female principals in Edo State is almost equal, while most female teachers are still fast ascending the ladder. It has been indicated that classroom teachers have generally abandoned their teaching responsibilities to other businesses; when they do teach, they do so halfheartedly. This has resorted to the challenge of raising half-baked students at the end of an academic year, thus perpetuating external examination failure. While the blame is apportioned to the difference in gender of the principal and their ability to supervise teacher behavior, this compelled the researcher to ask what impact female principals’ administration will have on teachers’ work behaviors in post primary schools in Edo State.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The main focus of this study is to present an assessment of Principal’s Gender And Teachers’ Work Behaviours In Post-Primary Schools In Edo State. Specifically the study seeks to:
- Examine if teachers’ work behavior with reference to ensuring discipline in school and adequate supervision is different when under male or female principals’ administration.
- Ascertain if teachers’ work behaviour in reference to commitment to school functions and attendance to instructional duties is different when under male or female principals’ administration.
- Determine if teachers’ adherence to school rules and regulations is different when under male or female principals’ administration.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The research is guided by the following hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant difference in male or female principals’ administration with reference to ensuring discipline in school and adequate supervision among teachers.
- HO2: There is no significant difference in teachers’ commitment to school functions and attendance to instructional duties when under male or female principals’ administration.
- HO3: There is no significant difference in teachers’ adherence to school rules and regulations when under male or female principals’ administration
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The findings of the study will most likely be useful to the Post Primary Schools Services Commission (PPSSC), the Public, the Administrators/Educational Planners, Researchers, Principals and Teachers as well as Students who are mostly considered in the education of any nation. The findings of this study will also be most useful to the principals and teachers of secondary because it will enable them to understand whether teachers’ work behavior are influenced by principal’s gender or not. If teachers’ work behavior are influenced by principal’s gender, it will enable these principals and teachers to promote improved teachers’ work behaviors in schools so as to achieve high school effectiveness. Finally the study will contribute empirically to the body of knowledge and serve as a reference material for both student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in relate field.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this study borders on an assessment of Principal’s Gender And Teachers’ Work Behaviors In Post-Primary Schools. The study seeks to investigate if there will be any significance difference in female and male principal towards ensuring discipline, adequate supervision, influencing teachers commitment to their profession as well an initiate adherence to school rules and regulation. The study is however delimited to selected secondary schools in Esan Central Local government Area of Edo State.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were finance and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, femininity and masculinity. Depending on the context, this may include sex-based social structures and gender identity.
The school principal is the highest-ranking administrator in an elementary, middle, or high school. Principals typically report directly to the school superintendent or the education board. He is responsible to manage and spear heard the administration of the school affairs
A teacher (also called a schoolteacher or formally, an educator) is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.
Work Behavior refers to an activity that is performed to meet the objectives and requirements of a job. Work behaviors consist of observable (physical) and unobservable (mental) components, and can include the performance of one or more tasks.
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