Assessment Of Poverty And Youth Radicalization In Nigeria (A Study Of Amac In FCT Abuja)

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Assessment Of Poverty And Youth Radicalization In Nigeria (A Study Of Amac In FCT Abuja)


Abstract


The purpose of the study was to establish the assessment of poverty and youth radicalization in Nigeria (a study of AMAC in FCT Abuja).The research design used for the study was a survey research design in which questionnaires were used in collecting data from the respondent. The sample for the study consisted of 124 persons (Male 90 and Female 34). Data collected was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. Results indicated that there was significant relationship between poverty, (financial standing, employment, family structure, social support, level of education and poverty) and radicalisation among the youths of Abuja study area.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The age pattern of crime is close to universal. In virtually all countries, criminal activity rise with age, peak in the late teens, then fall (e.g. Hirschi and Gottfredson 1983). For example, while the conviction rate among Swedish men aged 19 to 24 in the year 2005 amounted to 4.2 percent the corresponding figure for men aged 29 to 34 was nearly half as large. A popular explanation for the age distribution of crime is that youths are more exposed to unemployment (e.g. Freeman 1996). Economists have argued that the income loss generated by unemployment lowers the opportunity cost of engaging in crime (Becker 1968). Others have hypothesized that joblessness triggers frustration and anger, which in turn may lead to violent behavior (e.g. Agnew 1992). It has also been suggested that unemployment provides individuals with more time and opportunities to commit crime (Felson 1998).

The history of youth crime in the world typically follows the booms and busts of economic activity (ILO, 2017). The usual pattern is at the onset of every activity slowdown, there is a strong hike in the unemployment rates, followed by an easing period as the economy revives. Globally, youth unemployment has existed. For example, Youth Unemployment rate in the United States averaged 12.22 percent from 1955 until 2018, reaching an all-time high of 19.50 percent in April of 2010 and a record low of 7.80 percent in September of 1956 (TradingEconomics, 2018). Considerable attention continues to be given to youth crime (offences committed by youth aged 8-17 years) and identifying those individuals at risk of repeat offending (involved in offending on more than one separate occasion). This is despite a downward trend in the number of recorded offences that are committed by young offenders, and a reduction in the number of youth who are involved in these crimes. It is widely accepted that youth crime has significant implications for society in terms of the financial cost of crime, the failure of custodial sentences to act as a deterrent to crime, and the impact of crimes on victims, families and the general public (Kemshall, 2008).

However, there has been less consensus regarding whether youth crime is a societal problem (Goldson, 2011; McAra & McVie, 2012; Smith, 2011) or a problem of the individual (e.g., psychological dysfunction and/or personality disorder; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1970; Rutter & Smith, 1995). Most do acknowledge, however, that no single risk factor has been identified as a cause for youth offending. Rather, youth crime is considered the result of the complex interaction of a number of risk factors (e.g., community, school, individual, and family factors), with the absence of important protective factors (e.g., attachment to parent, resilience, support network; Rutter, Giller, & Hagell, 1998). According to the International Labour Organization (ILO, 2017), overall economic growth continues to be disconnected from employment growth, and economic instability threatens to reverse observed gains in youth employment. The global economic outlook for 2017 and 2018 is positive and growth is projected to accelerate modestly due to moderate pickups in investment and trade, mainly led by advanced economies (ILO, 2017).

However, job growth does not always accompany economic recovery, a situation which affects, especially, young people who are entering the job market in record numbers. According to ILO (2017), the global youth unemployment rate rose slightly in 2017, reaching 13.1 percent, although the expected 70.9 million young unemployed is well below the crisis peak of 76.7 million in 2009. The global youth crime rate stabilized at 13% in 2016 but was expected to rise slightly to 13.1% in 2017(Baah-Boateng, 2016). The number of unemployed youth decreased to 70.9 million in 2017 from the crisis peak of 76.7 million in 2009. However, the number was expected to rise by a further 200,000 in 2018, reaching a total of 71.1 million (Alliance, 2017). In Africa, unemployment and crime of the youth continues to be a serious social problem despite some improvements in recent years. In the Sub-Saharan Africa youth unemployment rate was significantly higher than the adult unemployment rate. It was as twice as adult unemployment rate in 2012 (ILO, 2013).In Ethiopian for example, Asmare and Mulatie (2014) stated the major factors supposed to be affecting urban youth unemployment, particularly graduates from higher institutions, were: lack of good governance (nepotism, corruption, bias and discrimination), lack of social networks, divergence between skills and the labor market and low quality educational policy and system. Gebeyaw (2011) indicated that women and the youth were the primary victims of unemployment. Ejigu (2011) found that the prime age male unemployment rate was a positive significant predictor of youth unemployment rates. In Somalia, a 2012 UNDP Human Development report indicated that 67 percent of youth in the country were unemployed, and in Nigeria, 89 percent live in abject poverty (Ali, 2014). Presently, the unemployment rate for youth in Somalia is among the highest in the world with more than 66% of youths having no jobs (Business Insider, 2016). Despite the small improvements made in the economic sector, youth unemployment remains a constant and pressing issue for the Nigeria Government. The youth make up 70% of the total population with an unemployment rate of 65% according to the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Guleid, et al., 2017). Similarly, there is wide spread youth unemployment in Bosaso(Omar, Miriyagalla, & Osman, 2017). This widespread unemployment among disaffected youth has fuelled extremism, piracy, political instability, and poverty, which in turn have contributed to the failure of several demobilization attempts in the country(Ali, 2014). Violent activity, crime, and drug use are rampant, especially among informal settlements in the outskirts of the city. Youth have fallen prey to extremist groups who take advantage of disaffection and disillusionment to recruit them into the militia, creating a destabilizing effect.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poverty has a great influence on the crime rate in Abuja of Nigeria. Poverty can be in state of absolute where there is lack of the basic resources needed to maintain minimum of the physical health, normally calculated in calories, while relative poverty has quantitative dimensions which refer to general standard of living in different societies due to cultural sensitivity and variations between and within societies over poverty and radicaloization is due to massive inequality due to poor allocation of investment, education, planning and policy implementation, inadequate health facilities, human rights violations such as economic empowerment, right for protection, security, children’s rights, and right to life.

Amac area with a population of over 240,000 suffers from poverty and radicalization due to underdevelopment and expansive population which constraints the meagre available natural resources. The Constituency Development Fund (CDF) is also geared towards enhancing small microfinance projects in education, infrastructure, youths, markets, farming in the area to alleviate poverty. There are conflicts over the scarce resources like land ownership, safe drinking water, streams, food/ education, health which results into conflicts and criminal activities and offences due to poverty Crime and violent conflicts is growing due to disparities in wealth, increasing unemployment among the youths, population press he on land and resources leading to environmental degradation which provokes social discontent, polarization leading to social strife in the region.

According to vigorous approach theory societal conditions of deep spread and deep poverty is essentially deprivation suffered by a large segment of some important essentials for sustenance such as sufficient income to provide housing, clothing, food and education, health facilities adequate opportunities for production employment which leads to societal stress. Stress leads to increasing the anger and frustration of the poor suffering who are then exploited by violence promoting war bent demagoguery. Indeed, scarcities of the basic needs amongst the population causes social segmentation, group formation and strengthen groups identity which creates violent collective action which takes forms from crime war7 terrorism, riots, civil insurgencies, political repressions to its ultimate forms,

Most of the inhabitants of Amac live on subsistence farming on small holdings of less than an acre and with poor farming methods, lack of farm inputs and technical agricultural know-how have lessen the yield to sustain the family needs. The are no income generating investments as factories, plantations (cash crops) to employ the youths and e working population in the areas leading to severe unemployment and crime in the region. In 1991 the United Nations crime prevention journals stipulated that crime has accelerated far beyond the current reach of international community. radicalisation is particularly serious impediment to harmonious development. It dissipates or misdirects the gains of economic growth and impairs the quality of life, crime threatens safety wellbeing a d personal integrity of us all. (United Nations: 1991) The study seeks to address poverty and youth radicalization in Nigeria (a study of Amac in FCT Abuja).


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose the study was to establish the relationship between poverty and radicalisation and make recommendations of helping the AMACpeople of Abuja and the government to alleviate poverty and radicalisation in the area of study.


1.4 Research Objectives

The major objective of the study was to investigate the influence of poverty on radicalisation amongst the residents of Abuja The specific objectives of the study will be:

  1. To determine economic factors that lead to a vicious cycle of poverty inAbuja
  2. To investigate how poverty causes radicalisation in Abuja.
  3. To establish development plans to alleviate poverty in the region.
  4. To assess Ways Which Youth can Overcome Poverty in Nigeria

1.5 Research Questions

Study was guided by the following questions: –

  1. What is the relationship between financial standing of the respondents and radicalisation in Abuja?
  2. What is the relationship between employment of the respondents and radicalisation among the in Nigeria?
  3. What is the relationship between the family structure and radicalisation in Nigeria?
  4. What is relationship between the family support among the respondents and radicalisation in Nigeria?
  5. What is the relationship the level of education and radicalisation of the respondents in Nigeria?
  6. What Are The Ways Which Youth Can Overcome Poverty In Nigeria?

1.6 Hypotheses

  1. There is no relationship between financial standing and radicalisation.
  2. There is no relationship between employment and radicalisation in Nigeria.
  3. There is no relationship between family structure and radicalisationin Nigeria.
  4. There is no relationship between family support and radicalisationamong in Nigeria.
  5. There is no relationship between the level of education and radicalisationin Nigeria.

1.7 The Scope of the Study

The study covered Amac in Abuja Nigeria which is one of the most poverty stricken areas resulting to violent crime, crimes against humanity and gross violation.

The study was limited to assess or establish the relationship between poverty and radicalisation amongst 240,000 inhabitants of Amac and its implication on the economic development within the region.

The study bases its guidelines on Malthusian theory of population to state the rationale on scarce resources leading to youth bulge and violence and conflict theory to explain crime and its effects in the study area.


1.8 Significance of the Study

Information from this study will be used by Governmental Departments, Youth Fund, District Budgetary allocations, Education Offices, Provincial Administration and Nongovernmental Organizations to make right decisions to empower the economic status of the area to alleviate poverty and radicalisation as well as gross violation of human rights. The Ministry of Planning and National Development, Ministry of finance, The Office of the President and Provincial Administration to promote food security, health and sanitation services, investment and cur b violent crimes in the region. The study will be useful in investigating and establishing factors leading to poverty and how to curb them through the recommendations of the study in accordance to Malthusian’s population Theory on Fundamental Human rights and conflicting theory on crime issues.


1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms

Poverty:

The vicious cycle of poverty has been defined as the phenomenon where poor families become trapped in poverty for at least three generations. The families have either limited resources or no resources.

Crime:

A crime is a violation of criminal statutory law and a specific punishment applied by some government authority generally accompanies the violation. Criminal activities and crime rates vary in different legal jurisdictions which accompany differences in rates of enforcement.

Youth:

Youth is a concept that describes the transitional period between childhood and adulthood. In this study, it shall refer to all persons aged 15-35.


Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study investigated the assessment of poverty and youth radicalization in Nigeria (a study of Amac in FCT Abuja). The study was intended to establish the relationship between financial standing, the employment, family structure, social support, the level of education and among the people and their tendency to be radicalised in the study area The purpose of the study was to generate ways of solving poverty issues in order to reduce radicalisation amongst the youths and the vulnerable individuals in the community of Abuja in Nigeria. This was in relation to problem statement of the research that poverty has a great influence on radicalisation due to unemployment, illiteracy, low levels of education, lack of property such as land, investments and he daily basic needs to stop hunger and starvation. There is social family support by CDF programmes, NGOs government on education, infrastructure, and health care, food relief but this is still like a drop in the ocean as people continue with radical criminal offences such as, terrorism. There are frequent organized radicalisations in urban and rural settings such as burglary, robbery, murder of prominent people and watchmen, assaults, prostitution, rape, gambling, mugging, commercial sex, pick pocketing, gender based violence which take party in the study.

The study specifically sought to determine the factors that lead to the vicious cycle of poverty causes radicalisation, develop plans to access and investigate criminal offences when committed in the region and they are solved by the law enforcers and policy makers in the study area. The study used the null hypothesis that there was no relationship between poverty and radicalization in the study area to establish the findings of the research on poverty/ and radicalisation among the AMAC people. The findings were that there was a significant relationship between the level of employment, education, financial standing, social structure, social support and the tendency of people to be radicalised in accordance to the analysis and interpretation of the results from 124, respondents in view of all these finding there is evident facts that there is poverty in Abuja.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. The recommendations from the research findings show that there is need for the government to organize investment programmes and income generating projects to improve the standards of living for the people in the study area.
  2. The empowerment opportunities should be available to all the legible population regardless agenda, clan or disability to engage the people in to work force to generate the districts economic grow to reduce radicalisation.
  3. The parents should organize to meet the need of their households through legal income generating project and be innovative to cope up with the technological and the globalized world. The stakeholder should address the issue of poverty and radicalization in the study area to create an enabling environment for investment for economic growth.

5.3 Recommendations of Further Research

The researcher recommends further research study on youth employment and radicalisation in Abuja.
The relationship between social support and gender based violence among the household heads in Abuja.
The role of the Constituency Development Fund on poverty reduction in Abuja of, Nigeria,


Assessment Of Poverty And Youth Radicalization In Nigeria (A Study Of Amac In FCT Abuja)


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