Assessment Of The Perception Of Nursing Student Toward CBT Examination At School Of Nursing Kano
This study focussed on the assessment of the perception of nursing student toward cbt examination at School Of Nursing Kano. CBT has been seen as an alternative to the unmanageable population of undergraduate students in Nigerian universities. This notwithstanding, the peculiar nature of some courses hinders its total implementation. This study was conducted to investigate the students’ perception of CBT for undergraduate chemistry courses in University of Ilorin. To this end, it examined the potential for using student feedback in the validation of assessment. A convenience sample of 48 students who had taken test on CBT in chemistry was surveyed and questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis demonstrated an auspicious characteristics of the target context for the CBT implementation as majority (95.8%) of students said they were competent with the use of computers and 75% saying their computer anxiety was only mild or low but notwithstanding they have not fully accepted the testing mode with only 29.2% in favour of it, due to the impaired validity of the test administration which they reported as being many erroneous chemical formulas, equations and structures in the test items even though they have nonetheless identified the achieved success the testing has made such as immediate scoring, fastness and transparency in marking. As quality of designed items improves and sufficient time is allotted according to the test difficulty, the test experience will become favourable for students and subsequently CBT will gain its validation in this particular context.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
During the past few years, technology has significantly reshaped the method of assessment. In many academic domains, educational measurement has been moving towards the use of computer-based testing (CBT), defined as tests or assessments that are administered by computer in either stand-alone or dedicated network, or by other technology devices linked to the internet or world wide web most of them using multiple choice questions (MCQs)( Olawale and Shafi’I, 2010). Computer based tests have been used since 1960s to test knowledge and problem solving skills . Computer based assessment systems have enabled educators and trainers to author, schedule, deliver, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests and exams. There are two main types of computer based testing. The most familiar type is where candidates fill in their responses on a paper form, which is fed into a computer optical mark reader. This reads the form, scores the paper, and may even report on the test reliability. The second type of computer based testing is where computers provide an assessment interface for students: they input their answers and receive feedback via a computer(Olawale and Shafi’I, 2010)..
An effective method of student assessment is necessary in chemistry as well as all areas and levels of education. Due to an increase in student numbers, ever-escalating work commitments for academic staff, and the advancement of internet technology, the use of computer assistedassessment has been an attractive proposition for many higher education institutions (Adegbija et al., 2012). Since their first use, computer-assisted test construction systems have made a major impact on the design and generation of chemistry examinations at many universities and colleges.
Currently in University of Ilorin, the traditional method (a combination of essay examination and practical examination) is most used as evaluation of students’ knowledge. In the past few years, the number of students increased drastically and the conventional examination method became time consuming in term of the examination time for evaluation and assessment. A solution of examination in large classes of students is an automated testing system and this has been introduced by the University of Ilorin in 2008, primarily to address this concern and others.
Generally, advantages of CBT systems over traditional paper-and-pencil testing (PPT) have been demonstrated in several comparative works and as mentioned by, CBT is not just an alternative method for delivering examinations, it represents an important qualitative shift away from traditional methods such as paper based tests(Adegbija et al., 2012). Despite, these advantages available in computerized test administration as it was shown that, it does not mean that CBTs are intrinsically better than paper-and-pencil tests . Previous study by have even found that testing format does not affect test scores and as such CBT canAs CBT began to be used for summative assessment, establishing whether computer based testing performance was comparable to that of paper based assessment became important. Researchers have performed large scale reviews of studies examining differences in performance of CBT and paper-based version of tests and have generally found that when CBT is similar in format to pencil and paper tests, it has little if any effect on test performance(Adegbija et al., 2012).
From students’ perspective of the CBT there have been a number of mixed reactions. Previous research) showed that more people anticipated problems with the computer assisted assessment than actually had them . Their research also showed that despite fewer students being confident about CBT before completing the assessment more students stated a preference for CBT afterwards. Previous study conducted indicated a preference for CBT over PPT . Some studies reported the main disadvantage as being increased anxiety amongst those unfamiliar with use of computer and as such students agreed that they are “technophobic”(Adegbija et al., 2012).
The challenge to test examinees by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design. To comply with this demand, students’ beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test are important since user perceptions and criticism are crucial in the acceptance, implementation and improvement of computerized tests.
Furthermore, whilst recognising the systemlevel advantages associated with CBT it is important to explore the relationship between assessment mode and the behaviour of the students being assessed. If the term “affordances” is used to describe what is made possible and facilitated, and what is made difficult and inhibited by a medium of assessment. It is possible that the affordances offered by computer mediated assessment may affect the perceptions of students involved in computer-based assessment differently than if they were engaged in paper-based assessment (Adegbija et al., 2012).
In general, several areas appear worthy of investigation, including issues related to quality factors that may influence performance and student perceptions regarding computer-based tests. The fact that students’ perception of CBT for chemistry courses is an under-explored topic is apparent
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The advantages of using computer technology for educational assessment in a global sense have been recognised and these include lower administrative cost, time saving and less demand upon teachers among others. Whilst recognising these system-level advantages it is important to explore the relationship between assessment mode and the behaviour as well as perception of the students being assessed because the assumption of comparability between CBT and PBT without proper investigation within that particular testing context, is inappropriate(Adegbija et al., 2012). Some test takers reported that, it is more difficult to navigate back to rework problems. Some are resistant to the computerized testing process because they are accustomed to taking notes and circling question and/or answers for later review . Others say that they read more quickly and more easily on paper than on a glaring computer screen. While electronic glitches are rare, they have been known to occur, for instance where computer crashes can void the efforts of large numbers of test takers. All these conflicting positions serve as the justification for this study.
In general, the points of concern are students’ attitudes about grades, attitudes about convenience and control, validity. Some examinees have a general anxiety about the computer itself, while others are more concerned about whether their level of computer experience . Some other technical issues in CBT that affect students’ response to the designed chemistry questions are: Use of the mouse, font size, screen clarity, screen size, screen resolution, display rate and scrolling. The User interface-item layout, presentation graphics has been known to affect examinees as they may have difficulty with certain aspects of it, or they may object to particular element of adaptive test delivery. These aspects are captured in the survey instrument of this study.
The challenge on CBT test designers and administrators is to construct CBT to be fair and reliable and to produce valid test scores. Furthermore, they have to be designed to minimize examinees’ frustration and to limit the sources of examinee anxiety. These additional test design steps are well worth taking, because of the effective and measurement improvements they offer (Adegbija et al., 2012). CBT implementation should also be constructed to meet the standard requirements such as that of International Test Commission (ITC) as has been summarized under four issues. These are: the Technology, Quality, Control, andSecurity. Also, it has been stated that computerized administration of test normally should provide test takers with at least the same degree of feedback and editorial control regarding their responses that they would experience in traditional test taking formats. It is therefore anticipated that providing specific information about students’ perception of CBT in undergraduate chemistry course may enable refinement of the current use of CBT. This is because subjects’ attitudes and feelings towards a test is an important factor in test design, since, if it is ignored there may well be adverse effect on test scores(Adegbija et al., 2012).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is an assessment of the perception of nursing student toward cbt examination at School Of Nursing Kano.
Specific objectives include:
- Examine the issues peculiar to chemistry CBT test from other courses.
- Evaluate the general constraints on the use of CBT for chemistry courses.
- Investigate the factors that influence students’ attitudes to assessment mode.
1.4 Research Questions
The following six research questions were formulated in addressing the problems identified in this study: the issues peculiar to chemistry CBT test from other courses
- What are the issues peculiar to chemistry CBT test from other courses?
- What are the general constraints on the use of CBT for chemistry courses?
- What are the factors that influence students’ attitudes to assessment mode?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research work would be significant to Joint admission and matriculation board, Nnamdi Azikiwe University ICT directorate, other Universities, instructional designers, school administrators, curriculum developers, professional associations, students and lecturers on the areas of student‟s perception and view towards information and communication technology in education. The findings from this study would create awareness for the management of Joint Admission and Matriculation Board to know student’s perception on the use of computer based examination and improves on its present status. Also, it would assist Joint Admission and Matriculation Board to find out what have been the students‟ constraints and factors on the use of computer based examination and to improve their mode of operations in computer based examination.
The finding of this would be of benefits to students, lecturers, National Examination Bodies and universities in Nigeria. The study could help provide universities and other educational establishments with useful information or fact on the level of information and communication technology resources, computer literacy and compliance of students by providing to them adequate training of the required manpower to help teach them the much needed manipulative skills to students or candidate. The result of this research study will help both Federal and State Government to lay more emphasis on Computer or ICT in education and budget more funds to our educational sector as recommended by UNESCO and for the full implementation of ICT in education in Nigeria. It will also enable all education stakeholders like the teachers, educational planners, curriculum and instructional designers with other professional associations in the system to design and redesign the mode of examination (education) from traditional conventional method to computerized based method (digitalized) method of assessment or education to be introduce at all levels of our educational system from primary to secondary schools to help teach, equip and prepare students ahead of the new innovative of joint admission and matriculation board computer based examination and other internal and external digitalized examination to fit in the informative age, as the whole world is shifting the assessment paradigm with advance ICT technologies for quality assessment delivery.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study focussed on an assessment of the perception of nursing student toward cbt examination atSchool Of Nursing Kano. The also covers the issues peculiar to chemistry CBT test from other courses, the general constraints on the use of CBT for chemistry courses and the factors that influence students’ attitudes to assessment mode.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
According Best and Khan (1998) limitations are conditions beyond the control of the researcher that may place restriction on the conclusion of the study and their application to other situations. The limitations that were encountered by the researcher included lack of cooperation on the part of the respondents on suspicion that the information sought may be used to victimize them. Another limitation related to the area of study is that, the area is not large enough to capture the findings that would be generalized to cover the whole country.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment.
Electronic assessment, also known as digital assessment, e-assessment, online assessment or computer-based assessment, is the use of information technology in assessment such as educational assessment, health assessment, psychiatric assessment, and psychological assessment.
Is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution.
Students’ Academic Performance:
The outcomes of the teaching and learning process in terms of knowledge and skills in students acquire from schools as measured by scores obtained in Certificate for Secondary Examinations (CSEE).
Refers to achievement in standardized tests or examinations shown by a student. According to Niebuhr (1995) Academic performance of students is typically assessed by the use of teacher’s ratings, tests, and examinations.
This refers to a process that uses the safety of a special relationship between the counselor and the counselee together explore the thoughts, feelings and counselor attitudes of the counselee with the objective of tapping the resources within the counselee to effect healing and change.
Refers to all activities rendered by educational institutions, which are primarily concerned with assisting individual students understand themselves, thus their needs, interest abilities and potentials.
Teaching and Learning Materials:
In this study teaching and learning materials mean all materials that facilitate the teaching and learning in secondary schools. They include laboratories with its chemical and equipment, text books used for teaching by the teachers and those used by the students for reference. Other materials are projectors, classrooms, desks, libraries as well as syllabus. Big charts, wall maps, photographs are also teaching and learning materials (Mbunda, 2006).
To perform is to take a complex series of actions that integrate skills and knowledge to produce a valuable result.
1.9 Organisations of the Study
This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
- Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The data reveals that the age ranges of 18 to 21 and 22 to 25 years heavily predominate among student responders. Due to their average age ranges as tertiary students, this set of responders could be considered mature. This suggests improved cognitive function and accurate perception of the CBT test score. The sample showed that 6 (12.5%) of the responders were under the age of 18. 19 (39.5%) were aged 18 to 21 years, while 21 (43.8%) were in the 22 to 25 age range. 26-29 years made up 2 (4.2%).
The result in Table 4.5 above shows that from the respondents’ perspective, the most prevalent case with the CBT administration is the success it made in providing a very ‘conducive environment for student testing’ with an index of 4.14, this has been expressed by participants in other studies such as (Williams, 2007). Also ‘receiving test results automatically using the CBT system’ has been identified to be the next most significant item with an index of 3.66, meaning this has attracted majority of the CBT examinees’ attention and seen as a positive factor. Nonetheless, CBT brings along with it its drawback as the next pinpointed item is ‘feeling threatened by the CBT exam compared to the paper-based’ with an index of 3.31. As identified by examinees in Saad’s (2009) study, respondents admitted ‘CBT exam was a positive experience’ with an index of 3.29. The ‘CBT exam as being efficient’ came next with an index of 3.16. Respondents did not agree substantially that ‘the CBT exam was better than the paper-based exam’ as it has the lowest score of 2.35.
Due to the peculiar nature of undergraduate chemistry courses, examiners should take note of this peculiarity in deciding courses that CBT mode is appropriate for their examinations. The findings of this study also revealed that, erroneous questions and inadequate time were among major cause of students’ failure with CBT mode of assessment. It can therefore be concluded that, examination questions prepared for this mode should be made error-free and also, the timing should be adequate. The result also showed that, the conducive environment provided by the system, receiving results automatically using the CBT system, threat felt when taking CBT exam compared to the paper-based, the positive experience it offers and its efficiency are important design consideration for this mode of assessment. As far as performance i.e test score is concerned, respondents are of the discernment that CBT test mode had effect on their scores. The researchers thereby conclude that there is need for basic training on general use of computer before exposure to CBT mode of assessment since prior computer experience has a positive influence on performance. It can also be concluded only few course should be examined using CBT mode since larger percentage of students disagreed the CBT exams have satisfactorily tested their knowledge of the course and more so since students’ overall testing mode preference has been for the paper-based testing mode.
The findings of the study have important implications for interventions for both the university authorities as well as social workers. The administration of Nigerian universities should make a swift move to eradicate the traditional and manual method of paper-based examination to pave way for full implementation of CBT examination in Nigerian universities.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:
- The school management should endeavour to embed calculator to the CBT program, this is to allow students easily use the calculator.
- Immediate display of test score should be implemented; this is to raise the transparency level of the test process.
- The school management should encourage use of computers to write essay tests.
- More time should be allotted to calculation-related courses.
- Test scores should be in discretion of lecturers alone.
- To achieve the above recommendation, CBT questions should be encrypted directly from the lecturer and will be decrypted only when the student that registered the course logs in to take the test.
- Maintenance of the computers should be done regularly to avoid freezing, and crashing of systems during test.
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