Assessment Of Patients’ Attitude Towards The Use Of Radiology Changing Room And Changing Facilities
This study assessed patients’ attitude towards the use of radiology changing rooms and changing facilities. It was a survey research conducted in 2018/19 at the x-ray departments of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 321 adult patients presented for radiological service in the study area using stratified sampling technique. Patient satisfaction was measured using SERVQUAL (Service Quality) tool that consisted of seven items: accessibility, quality of radiological service, courtesy of radiology staff, existence of good communication with service provider and desk worker, physical environment and privacy technique. Exit interviews of patients were conducted using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Data was collected by three grade ten completed trained data collectors from May 12 to May 28, 2018.
Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify independent factors associated with patient satisfaction on radiological services using SPSS version 21. The overall patient satisfaction towards radiological service was 71.6%. Satisfaction to accessibility of the service was 84.5% while it was 80.6% to courtesy of the staff. Similarly, 81.6% reported satisfied with quality of the service and 59.4% and 71% of reported satisfied with physical environment and radiological service provider respectively. On the other hand, 99.7% of the respondents were dissatisfied with privacy of the service. The study revealed that patients who attended primary school (AOR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.11–0.88), unemployed patients (AOR = 0. 067, 95% CI: 0.007–0.622) and patients who had short waiting time to enter into examination room less than one hour (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 1.4–11.62) were factors associated with patient’s satisfaction.
This study found that majority of respondents was satisfied with the patients’ attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities. Respondent’s education level, occupation as well as duration of time taken to enter into examination room were important factors influencing the satisfaction condition. Hence, concerted effort is needed to constantly improve on patient satisfaction to better radiology returns arising from improved patient patronage. It is recommended to give great care and attention to clients during radiological examination procedure and also suggested that the department should decrease time taken to enter into examination room. On the other hand, the reasons behind more educated clients were less satisfied with radiologic service than more educated respondents need further investigation.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 2.1 Conceptual review
- 2.2 Theoretical review
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research design
- 3.2 Research setting
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sample size determination
- 3.5 Measurement
- 3.6 Instrumentation
- 3.7 Validity of the instrument
- 3.8 Reliability of the instrument
- 3.9 Method of data analysis
- 3.10 Ethical considerations
Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
Conclusion And Recommendations
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the study
A patient is any recipient of health care services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse or other health care providers. He is also ignorant and even apprehensive of the medical investigations and procedures necessary to get him better and so offer a rather little or no assistance to the treatment process. His attitude is affected by the rather strange hospital environment. He is unaware of the medical environment and may not know what to do to improve the diagnosis. He may therefore be afraid of not only the diagnostic procedures but also of the diagnostic facilities. Therefore, the patient needs reassurance and a professional guidance through the diagnostic procedures.
Attitude, as a psychological concept, is defined as an enduring system of positive or negative evaluation, emotional feelings, and pro or con action tendencies with respect to social object (of which a patient is a good example). Attitude is therefore made up of three parts: emotion, belief and behavior. Patients’ attitude therefore, is an indication of his evaluation, emotional feelings and reaction towards the hospital environment in general and radiology department in particular. Several factors, including patients’ level of awareness and education influence his attitude. Every accessory in the radiology department may appear contaminated in the eye of the uninformed patient. Therefore, to gain the patient’s confidence, adequate communication is vital.
The radiology changing room is provided very close to the radiology (x-ray, mammography, CT etc) examination room. It is meant to help the patient, (irrespective of his/her level of knowledge of the diagnostic procedures) prepare adequately for the x-ray exams. This preparation is in the area of ensuring that the patient is dressed in a wear (changing gown) that will ensure that the x-ray examination is carried out without any clothing or other patient’s items interfering with the result of diagnosis. A well-lit and ventilated cubicle is required for each x-ray machine. A mirror, clothes hooks, changing gown and a bench are also provided for each changing room or changing cubicle. A larger sized dressing room may also be provided for the convenience of patients on a wheel chair. Each room should have curtains instead of a door. A toilet facility may also be provided.
The present study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with radiological services and factors associated with it. As this study was the first to be conducted in Nigeria, its result serves as indicators for radiological health service improvements to the study setting and it also becomes an initiating document for other researchers to further discuss and improve the status of radiological services delivery in Nigeria.
Assessment of the attitude of patients towards the use of these changing rooms and its facilities is the aim of this research. Assessment is the process of gathering and reflecting on evidence to make informed and consistent judgements to improve the understanding of a situation, which in this case is the attitude of patients towards the use of changing room and its items. This assessment will be carried out using University of Nigerian Teaching Hospital (UNTH) in Enugu state as case study.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Nowadays, studying patient satisfaction becomes one of the integral components of any health care services. Patient satisfaction is a concept that has been receiving increasing attention reflecting an evolving focus in the service-oriented health care market (Durey, 2018). Understanding satisfaction and associated factors have been recognized as a critical to developing many improvement strategies. Donabedian identified that the concept of patient satisfaction is complicated, irrespective of the area in which it is studied. It is a multidimensional concept; not yet tightly defined and part of an apparently yet to be determined complex model. The measurement of patient satisfaction through patient satisfaction surveys has helped organizational leaders incorporate patient perspectives as a way to create a culture where service is deemed an important strategic goal for healthcare facilities. However, despite their many efforts and successes with satisfaction measurement, evidence shows that more work in this area is still needed.
Patient satisfaction tended to be regarded as desirable, also critical to radiology services (Philemon, 2015).Radiological services can be defined simply as services which are rendered to a patient visiting the radiology department which can be either routine services those carried out on a day to day basis or some special examinations that are carried out on special cases that require the use of contrast agents. Despite extensive research done on defining and measuring patient satisfaction in other health departments, little attention is given to patient satisfaction with radiological services in Nigeria. However, within the hospital system, radiological services play a major role in influencing patient satisfaction. Their high through put, diverse mix of patient populations and disease entities, procedure-related discomfort including claustrophobia, and examination types ranging from routine imaging to emergency examinations pose unique challenges. In radiological services patient care, which involves all the activities that are carried out before, during and after radiological diagnostic procedures to make the conditions of patient better had a great role in influencing patient satisfaction. From the practical experience it was noted, patients usually reacts to some factors that create problems in radiology department such as delay, neglect, use of harsh words on them, unnecessary repeats and preferential treatments. Patients arrived the radiology department are often worried or apparently in aggressive attitude (John et al., 2014).
The availability and quality of radiological service in the developing countries are generally poor. Nigeria, where radiological services are not organized well, is one of the countries where overall health service has been compromised by inadequate & poorly maintained infrastructure and scarcity of health professionals. Radiological service is a resource intensive unit in a hospital and most developing countries’ radiological service is expected to be poor or may not be available at all. A number of studies have been conducted about patient satisfaction with other health care services in Nigeria. Nevertheless, for different reasons including the assumption that radiological services have little or no contact with a patient, studies in radiology setting are flimsy. Therefore, as patients’ attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities both for evaluation and improvement of healthcare services.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is to examine the patients’ attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
- Examine the patient’s attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities.
- Examine the Patient satisfaction towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities.
- Examine the Cost and waiting time for radiology changing room and changing facilities.
- Examine the Patients experience towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities.
- Examine the Factors associated with patients’ satisfaction towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities.
1.4 Research questions
- What is the patient’s attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities?
- What is the Patient satisfaction towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities?
- What is the Cost and waiting time for radiology changing room and changing facilities?
- What are the Patients experience towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities?
- What are the Factors associated with patients’ satisfaction towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities?
1.5 Significance of the study
Although factors contributing to patients` satisfaction have been studied before as a major indicator used in planning and evaluation towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities, not all patients are satisfied with the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities all the time. In the literature, there is a lack of consensus on what factors of nursing care constitute patient satisfaction from the patient’s perspectives regarding their hospital experiences, views and expectations. This makes one believe that there are some areas which lead to patient satisfaction that are being overlooked by care providers in Nigerian Hospitals. Without a clear interpretation of patient satisfaction, all work towards achieving patient satisfaction regularly will be hampered. A question is now posed: What are experiences and expectations of nursing care from adult patients towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities? The answer to this question may help nurse practitioners and policy makers to explore patient satisfaction, experiences and expectations of radiographers and what they imply for the field of radiography.
This study is therefore significant because it will aggregate and interpret findings of primary qualitative studies on patient satisfaction in order to provide a comprehensive account of what constitutes patient satisfaction. This study serves as an appraisal to detect patient’s perception and satisfaction on the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities and how to make an adjustment in radiography.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study is carried out on the assessment of patients’ attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities. The study is limited to the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu state.
Conclusion And Recommendations
This study was carried out on assessment of patients’ attitude towards the use of radiology changing room and changing facilities. Studying patient satisfaction with radiological service is very important given the fact that patients are usually unfamiliar with the complexities of radiological examination and the sophistication of equipment involved in the procedure. In this study, it was found that the majority of the respondents were satisfied with the radiological services. Patients were satisfied with access to radiological service, courtesy of radiological service, quality of radiological service, also with service provider and also with desk workers; but, more than half and almost all patients were dissatisfied with the physical environment and privacy techniques of the radiological service respectively. Respondents level of education, occupational status and time taken to enter into examination room were found to influence patient satisfaction towards radiological service. Hence, concerted effort is needed to constantly improve on patient satisfaction to better radiology returns arising from improved patient patronage. Greater attention needs to be given to the interplay between patients’ socio-demographic factors and time taken to enter into examination room.
Based on our finding provision of great care and attention during service provision, decreasing time taken to enter into examination room, reducing appointment time for ultrasound and decreasing CT scan payment are recommended. Furthermore, as this study was the first with patient satisfaction towards radiological service, periodical study focusing on patients’ satisfaction in the department and hospital should be implemented to keep up with the change of the phenomena.
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