Assessment Of Occupational Health And Safety Risk In Luth, Idi Araba

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Assessment Of Occupational Health And Safety Risk In Luth, Idi Araba


Abstract


This study was carried out on the occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of heath-care workers in LUTH, Idi Araba. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 100 respondents and all validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the occupational health and safety risk issues in LUTH, Idi Araba include; lifting, and repositioning of patients without proper techniques, exposure to hazardous chemicals, exposure to radiation, stress, burnout and fatigue, risk in ambient workplace, slips, trips and falls, and hazardous healthcare waste and climate related risk. The study also revealed that the occupational safety promotion practices among healthcare workers in LUTH, Idi Araba comprises of hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, use of barriers (e.g., gloves, gown, cap, mask), care with devices, equipment and clothing used, surface processing protocols, health service waste handling, adequate discarding of sharp instruments, and patient’s accommodation in accordance with requirement levels as an infection transmission source. In the light of the findings, this study recommends that the hospitals management board, Rivers State and board of directors FMC, should encourage safety education/seminar/workshop among the health care workers. This can be done by making a lecture on safety education mandatory during health workers forum in the ministry of health and social development monthly interactive session. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Infections and diseases is one of the most important problems in any work place worldwide. It constitutes one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality associated with clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (Bhat Shandadi, 2009). Healthcare workers or employees in work places are at a high risk of injuries, infections and blood-borne pathogens as they perform their work activities (Dentinger et al, 2014). They are exposed to blood-borne infections by pathogens, sharp injuries and contacts. According to a World Health Organization(Okojie et al, 2009) estimate, in year 2002, injuries resulted in over 16000 occupational hazards worldwide. Recapping, disassembly, and inappropriate health and safety precautions increase the risk of injury. Developing countries where the prevalence of work-related injuries is very high, record the highest injuries too. Occupational injuries were also reported as the most common occupational health hazard in a Nigerian work place (Araoye, 2008). Interventional measures have been proposed to minimize exposure of healthcare workers to infection/health hazards with the implementation of universal precautions as one of the strategies (Delclos et al, 2013). In 1983, the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a document that recommended occupational precautions during work hours (Delclos et al, 2013). In 1987, the CDC recommended that regardless of workers level, occupational precautions must be strictly and consistently adhered to (Delclos et al, 2013). These precautions include set of precautions devised to prevent transmission of all known air-borne pathogens, blood-borne pathogens and general work accident during the cause of their work(Kermode, 2011). In 1996, the CDC included the universal precautions in a new prevention concept the so called “safety precautions.” The “safety precautions,” which are devised to be used for all workers or staff in workplaces regardless of their place of work, work level and status (Tadese et al, 2009). The fact that “safety precautions” are recommended for all workers, regardless of their presumed work level, is important when handling work equipment and devices that are contaminated or suspected of contamination, and in situations of contact risk with contaminated surfaces(Cutter & Jordan, 2004). Safety precautions in work places include hand washing; use of barriers (e.g., gloves, gown, cap, mask); care with devices, equipment and clothing used during care; environmental control (e.g., surface processing protocols, health service waste handling); adequate discarding of sharp instruments including needles; and patient’s accommodation in accordance with requirement levels as an infection transmission source (Danchaivijitr, 2015). Another important measure is adequate professional immunization, as this guarantees anticipated protection against immune-preventable diseases.

The level of practice of universal precautions by healthcare workers may differ from one type of worker to another. The differences in knowledge of universal precaution by healthcare workers may be influenced by their different type of training. Various studies carried out among different categories of healthcare workers found that exposure to contaminated surfaces, materials or injurious objects was approximately 9.3% (Oliveira, Marziale, Paiva, & Lopes, 2013). A similar study conducted in Ibadan found a higher exposure rate of 25.1%. Several factors ranging from personal to organizational causes were responsible for non-adherence to the basic principles of universal precautions among healthcare workers. Universal precaution awareness education has not been pronounced among healthcare workers, particularly in developing countries (Kessler & Heeren, 2017). According to the most recent guideline published by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) in 2007, it has been recommended to apply safety precautions for all people during working hours. These safety precautions include but not limited to hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and instrument processing. In many studies, compliance with safety precautions among healthcare workers was reported to be inadequate with regard to eye and nose protection, glove use when required, and washing hands, use of face masks (Adinma 2009, Twitchell, 2003, Adams, 2003, and Makarawo, 2003). According to the literature, major reported factors that affect compliance with safety precautions include but not limited to lack of understanding and knowledge among healthcare workers on occupational safety precautions, shortage of time to implement the precautions (work overload), limited resources, lack of proper training, uncomfortable equipment, skin irritation, forgetfulness, distance from the necessary facilities, and insufficient support from management in creating a facilitating work environment (Adinma 2009, Twitchell, 2003, Adams, 2003, and Makarawo, 2003). Moreover, certain socio- demographic variables such as age, sex, job category, marital status, working site in the hospital and work experience were found to be associated with compliance with occupational safety precautions. Interventions tried in other countries to increase the compliance of healthcare workers with occupational safety and health precautions include but not limited to in-service training on occupational safety precautions beyond ordinary level, pre-service training by inclusion of occupational safety and health precautions in educational curricula, and availability of personal protective equipment.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The need for occupational safety or infection control in work places is borne out of the need to prevent work associated infections or hazards. Occupational hazards or infections can be defined as an infection or hazard occurring to a worker during the process of his/her work (Gbefwi, 2004). It contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in both developed and resource poor countries. The prevalence of occupational hazards in developing countries is somewhat higher with up to 19% prevalence of occupational hazards or infections among workers (McGrowder et al, 2010). Even with the paucity of data in sub-Saharan Africa, occupational hazards or infections remain a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in developing countries where work infection rates are relatively higher due to poor occupational safety practices (Motamed, et al, 2006). To curtail this menace, it has become necessary to implement occupational safety, infection or hazard control measures so as to reduce morbidity and mortality that comes with the occupational hazards or infections. Safety guidelines with various components from evidence-based care have been outlined to ensure global safety among healthcare workers for effective occupational infection control especially in Nigeria where work related hazards or infection has been on the rise(Nasidi et al, 2011). In the light of the above, this study aims at assessing occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically assess occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the occupational health and safety risk issues in LUTH, Idi Araba.
  2. Identify the occupational safety precautionary practices among healthcare workers in LUTH, Idi Araba.
  3. Determine the extent to which healthcare workers comply with the occupational safety precautionary practices in healthcare centers
  4. Ascertain the factors affecting occupational safety promotion practices in healthcare centers.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the occupational health and safety risk issues in LUTH, Idi Araba?
  2. What are the occupational safety promotion practices among healthcare workers in LUTH, Idi Araba?
  3. What is the extent to which healthcare workers comply with the occupational safety practices in healthcare centers?
  4. What are the factors affecting occupational safety promotion practices in healthcare centers?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Information revealed by the study on occupational hazards will help the health care workers, especially the doctors‟, nurses, pharmacists, technicians, laboratory scientist, technicians and technologist, health attendants/assistants and other para-medical officers, become aware of the presence of hazards in their work place. For instance, drugs may constitute poison; disinfectant may be corrosive, allergic contact dermatitis, delayed potential effects of chemical and dilapidated building structure. This awareness will make them become sensitive to the presence of hazards with a view to observing necessary safety guidelines for protection.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba. However, the study will further identify the occupational health and safety risk issues in LUTH, Idi Araba, examine the extent to which healthcare workers comply with the occupational safety practices in healthcare centers, and the factors affecting occupational safety promotion practices in healthcare centers. The respondents for this study will be obtained from LUTH, Idi Araba, Lagos State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Occupational Safety Management:

This is an area concerned with protecting the safety of people engaged at work effectively.

Safety:

It is the state of being certain that adverse effect will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions.

Safety Culture:

This is an organization’s norms, beliefs, roles, attitude and practices concerned with minimizing exposure of employees to workplace hazards.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the assessment of occupational health and safety risk in LUTH, Idi Araba. The study is was specifically set to identify the occupational health and safety risk issues in LUTH, Idi Araba, identify the occupational safety precautionary practices among healthcare workers in LUTH, Idi Araba, determine the extent to which healthcare workers comply with the occupational safety precautionary practices in healthcare centers, and ascertain the factors affecting occupational safety promotion practices in healthcare centers.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of heath-care workers in LUTH, Idi Araba.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The occupational health and safety risk issues in LUTH, Idi Araba include; lifting, and repositioning of patients without proper techniques, exposure to hazardous chemicals, exposure to radiation, stress, burnout and fatigue, risk in ambient workplace, slips, trips and falls, and hazardous healthcare waste and climate related risk.
  2. The occupational safety promotion practices among healthcare workers in Port-Harcourt comprises of hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, use of barriers (e.g., gloves, gown, cap, mask), care with devices, equipment and clothing used, surface processing protocols, health service waste handling, adequate discarding of sharp instruments, and patient’s accommodation in accordance with requirement levels as an infection transmission source.
  3. Healthcare workers comply with the occupational safety practices in healthcare centers.
  4. The factors affecting occupational safety promotion practices in healthcare centers are poor understanding and knowledge of occupational safety precautions, shortage of time to implement the precautions, limited resources, lack of proper training, uncomfortable equipment, skin irritation, forgetfulness, and distance from the necessary facilities.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. The hospitals management board, Rivers State and board of directors FMC, should encourage safety education/seminar/workshop among the health care workers. This can be done by making a lecture on safety education mandatory during health workers forum in the ministry of health and social development monthly interactive session.
  2. Ministry of health and social development Rivers state can partner with the millennium goals providers (UNICEF, PATHS) to train counselors and health educators on safety education, hazard prevention and management.
  3. Organization of health and safety week should be mandatory in hospitals like Nurses and Doctors week celebrations.
  4. Government should mobilize every hospital to establish a hazard control organization/unit in their various hospitals. In addition, crisis intervention workers should also be employed and adequately equipped.
  5. Seminars and workshops on hazards would help to update the health care workers knowledge on the subject matter.
  6. The use of standard/universal precaution should be entrenched in all hospitals among health care workers.
  7. Regular in training for all health workers should be encouraged by the government to acquaint with the latest technology in the health care sector.

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