Assessment Of News Credibility Between Government And Private Broadcast Media (A Case Study Of AIT And NTA)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Assessment Of News Credibility Between Government And Private Broadcast Media (A Case Study Of AIT And NTA)


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate news credibility between government and private broadcast media using AIT and NTA as a case study. The study was embarked on to specifically find out whether there is a significant difference between news timeliness of government and private broadcast media, find out whether there is a significant difference between the news accuracy of government and private broadcast media, find out whether there is a significant difference between news reliability of government and private broadcast media, and find out whether there is a significant difference between news clarity of government and private broadcast media. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of of AIT and NTA Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a statistically significant difference between news credibility of Government broadcast media and private broadcast media. Therefore, broadcasting media channels and stations should be rid of biased reporting and news as this can lead to a wide range of effects. And private broadcast media should not be intimidated by the government negative activities. They should not be threatened with the withdrawal of their licenses. More private broadcast media should be encouraged to spring up to make up for the lapse in the existing ones. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Both private and public electronic media affect the public by helping them to form opinion and at the same time help them to change it. They do this by helping to give the media consumers what to think about. Shawolu, Rima (1998) saidthat those pictures created by human beings in their heads, the purpose and relationships are their public opinions. Radio and television help to create these pictures through their messages and news.

Public opinion is not only affected by the pictures in our heads. Emery & Smythe (1986) believes that economic position and property acquired account for differences in opinion held over an issue. Opinion formation is also dependent on the use the individual want to put to the message. The use which one will put information to is conversely determined by his “ego” involvement, perceptions, judgment, social and educational background a, among other things. How broadcast stations influences public opinion depends on whether the audience have confidence in it. The confidence in any station is a function of how credible its message are; how it is dedicated to truth and facts (Shawolu, Rima 1998).

Any station which presents distorted information will tend to lose credibility. The result is that the viewing and listening audience will look elsewhere. Perhaps they may add up from informal sources thereby adding to the distortion.

Mass media wield an enormous power in shaping and reshaping of events. They persuade, crusade, set agenda, act as watchdog of the society, educate, inform, mobilize people to agitate for their rights or reject government actions or policies, they entertain and also act as status conferrer (Emery & Smythe 1986).

The newspaper is very aggressive in performing the watchdog and setting functions of the mass media but research has shown that despite the enormous power wielded by print media the electronic media has overtaken them thrusting and passing to all fabrics of the society: culture, politics, education, music and sports due to immediacy of their news thereby touching the lives of the young, adult, the aged, the poor, the rich, educated and illiterate cutting across all ethnic and religious groups affecting their norms, belief systems, dressing patterns, attitude and social behavior. This makes it easy for electronic media to mould and sustain opinion and at the same time easily sway such opinion (Tsfati, & Ariely, 2014).

Electronic media capabilities may be attributed to the immediacy their news, their “global village effect‟‟ high penetrability of the media to the audience in the cities and remote villages, disseminating the same message at the same time to heterogeneous mass of people.

Radio on the other hand is the widest and most popularly used mass medium in Nigeria. Nearly every household in Nigeria especially in Anambra state has a radio set. That is why researchers say that radio has the highest penetrability to the Nigerian audience, talking to them in the farm, in the house, on the road while, traveling or on evening stroll using the „walkman‟ in the office while working and while reading. No wonder coup plotters easily battle to capture Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) to announce their coup (Shawolu, Rima 1998).

Governments (especially in Africa) use the broadcast media to disseminate information to the citizenry, soliciting support from the populace for their programmes and mobilizing people to perform certain duties expected of them and to support from the populace for their programmes and mobilizing people to perform certain duties expected of them and support their policies.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

However, even in the democracy setting like in Nigeria of today, the public broadcast stations in their news and programmes do not tell the people the whole truth about events happening around them (Sullivan, Tim O. et al., 1994). They are biased in favour of the government of the day, helping the government to propagate lies, truncate the truth, vilify the oppositions, falsify issues, engage in mudslinging of opponents and acting as government‟s megaphone just like it is said that “he who pays the piper dictates the tune. By doing this, public opinion is seriously wounded as the public are confused on issues. The motives behind the news are understood by some while others are fooled, believing everything the government puts forth (Tsfati, & Ariely, 2014).

Because of this problem, the credibility and acceptance of public media news are questioned, issues are distorted. Inspite of this, public broadcasts still affect public opinion.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine news credibility between government and private broadcast media (a case study of AIT and NTA).

Other aims of this study are:

  1. To find out whether there is a significant difference between news timeliness of government and private broadcast media.
  2. To find out whether there is a significant difference between the news accuracy of government and private broadcast media.
  3. To find out whether there is a significant difference between news reliability of government and private broadcast media.
  4. To find out whether there is a significant difference between news clarity of government and private broadcast media.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Is there is a significant difference between news timeliness of government and private broadcast media?
  2. Is there is a significant difference between news accuracy of government and private broadcast media?
  3. Is there is a significant difference between news reliability of government and private broadcast media?
  4. Is there is a significant difference between news clarity of government and private broadcast media?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:

Ho: There is no significant difference between news credibility of government and private broadcast media.

Ha: There is a significant difference between news credibility of government and private broadcast media.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The research plays a significant role in enabling the media to ascertain whether the credibility of their contents impact on news consumption of citizens on the media.

It will further serve as a reference material for further studies and future reference.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the assessment of news credibility between government and private broadcast media (a case study of AIT and NTA). The credibility as referred to in this study will be focus on news timeliness, accuracy, reliability, and clarity. The respondents for this study will be obtained from AIT and NTA, Abuja.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Media:

This refers to collective means of communicating with a large number of people that heterogeneous and widely scattered in nature.

Credibility:

This is the capacity of being believed or a public official of maintaining the public confidence.

Media Credibility:

This refers to the degree at which media messages could be believed.

News:

This is the timely account of an effect by a reporter.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on news credibility between government and private broadcast media using AIT and NTA as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to investigate news credibility between government and private broadcast media using AIT and NTA as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to find out whether there is a significant difference between news timeliness of government and private broadcast media, find out whether there is a significant difference between the news accuracy of government and private broadcast media, find out whether there is a significant difference between news reliability of government and private broadcast media, and find out whether there is a significant difference between news clarity of government and private broadcast media.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondentswere staff of of AIT and NTA Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant difference between news timeliness of government and private broadcast media.
  2. There is a significant difference between news accuracy of government and private broadcast media.
  3. There is a significant difference between news reliability of government and private broadcast media.
  4. There is a significant difference between news clarity of government and private broadcast media.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Broadcasting media channels and stations should be rid of biased reporting and news as this can lead to a wide range of effects.
  2. Access by media staff to international news should be guaranteed.
  3. Adequate and periodic training should be given to staff of media stations in order to ensure effective news coverage.
  4. Private broadcast media should not be intimidated by the government negative activities. They should not be threatened with the withdrawal of their licenses. More private broadcast media should be encouraged to spring up to make up for the lapse in the existing ones.

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