Assessment Of Newcastle Disease Virus Antibodies Among Birds Reared

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Assessment Of Newcastle Disease Virus Antibodies Among Birds Reared

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important avian viral diseases because of its high economic impact on the poultry industry. Newcastle disease was discovered in Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and a metropolitan borough of Tyne and wear, in northeast England in 1926 (Doyle, 1927), but at this time slightly different strains were found in other parts of the world. The disease was initially reported in 1925 in Southeast Asia (Alexander, 1997) since then it has become an economically important disease of poultry all over the world.

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and is home to about 175 million domestic poultry. Poultry production in Nigeria can be classified into extensive and intensive systems. The extensive system accounts for the vast majority of poultry, more than 143 million which are free ranging birds in the rural areas (Sainbury, 2000). In Nigeria it is estimated that poultry supplies about 10% of the total meat needs and out of about 150 million poultry birds, 102 million are indigenous (Majiyade and Lamorde, 1997). The indigenous village chicken is identified as a way of providing rural women with diverse income earnings and employment (Alexander, 2001).

However, the endemic Newcastle and associated mortalities constitute a major obstacle to the promotion of large holdings of these birds (Majiyade and Lamorde, 1997). The disease is worldwide in distribution and virus strains of wide varying degrees of pathogenicity exist. Reports from some parts of Nigeria rated Newcastle disease as one of the greatest constraint to the development of the rural poultry production (Dipeolu and Kenipe, 1998).

In order to formulate appropriate control measures, the national situation with regards to the Newcastle disease status among the indigenous chickens need to be established in local chicken.(Rao and Prascal, 1987)
Newcastle disease since its first report in 1927 poses a threat on the on the poultry. The incidence of this disease has reduced over the years because of effective vaccination policies. However, the disease continues to be reported even in vaccinated flocks which necessitate industry the commercial vaccines against the epizootic isolates. (Hofacre, 1986)

In commercial chickens thermostable ND vaccines are used but this practice is not very popular in Nigeria
The presence of antibodies to NDV in unvaccinated local chickens can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of ND in a given environment.

1.1 Implication of Study

The indigenous village chicken is identified as a way of providing rural men and women with diverse income earnings and employment, However the endemic Newcastle Disease and its associated mortalities constitute a major obstacle to the promotion of large holding of these birds, since the disease has no treatment and chicks can only be vaccinated against the disease. This work is to detect the level of protection the indigenous chicken has against Newcastle disease.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

  1. This work is to assess Newcastle disease virus antibodies among birds reared in Anyigba Kogi State. `
  2. To established the public implication of this disease when found among birds.
  3. To compare the prevalence of ND among different villages in Anyigba, Kogi state
  4. To inform the keepers of indigenous birds on the need for improved management practices
  5. To know the effect of ND of birds close to commercial flocks and those not close to commercial flock
  6. To detect the level of protection birds has against ND

Chapter Five

5.1 Discussion

The result of this study showed that all the 180 sera samples collected from the unvaccinated indigenous village chicks contained antibody of 2³ to 2⁷.This results lends credence to the observation of (El-Yuguda and Baba, 2002), who described ND virus as endemic in Nigeria. The ND sero –positive status could be as a result of survivor from or subclinical previous ND infections. It could also be as a result that the chicks possess maternal antibodies. The later option may not hold because according to (Rao, 1987), ND maternal antibody in chicks can only persist for up to the 10th day of life and no detectable levels of ND antibodies were observed in 15 days old chicks.

Adequate ND antibodies are defined as HI titre that is greater than 2³ or greater for birds less than 18 weeks of age and 2⁵ or greater than for birds, 18 weeks of age or older (Alders and Spradbrow, 2001).The distribution of ND antibody titre (fig1) of chicks examined in this study suggests that all of them carried protective HI titres. When chicks are first vaccinated against ND, an anticipated serological HI titre of 2³ is said to be protective against the disease although not against the mutant virus. (Alders and Spradbrow, 2001). According to (Alders and Spradbrow, 2001). It is estimated that a booster will raise the serological titre to 2⁵. The above implies that only 44 (24.4%) of all the chicks (180) samples in this study may need a booster ND vaccine. (Table1).

The variation in the ND titres observed among the chicks in the groups (CCF and NCF) (Table 1), villages (Table2) and the division may be as result of possible differences in the age of the chicks at the time of the exposure to the ND virus. A comparatively better immune response was reported (Rao, 1987) in 10 days old chicks than 1and 5 days old chicks with maximum immune response in 15 days old chicks.

Similarly, variation in the level of dietary arginine and lysine in the feed available to the chicks in the various locations may affect their level of immune response. (Kidd, 2001).

It was also observed that the higher percentage of chicks in the CCF group (5.5%) than the NCF (3.3%) had the highest ND titre (2⁷) recorded in this study (Table1). This may be attributed to possible exposure of CCF to residual ND vaccine virus routinely administered in the commercial flock near the indigenous chicks. Observation by (Spradbrow, 1992). At village sites in Australia showed that ND vaccinated birds did not do better than their unvaccinated counter parts. According to (Spradbrow, 1992), control of ND alone on the field may not show any spectacular break through because the village environment harbored a complex of hazards for country some of them just as serious as the effect of ND. In this study it is discovered that chicks in Anyigba Kogi State do not need any ND vaccination but what is required is the education of the keepers of these indigenous birds on improved management practices.

5.2 Conclusion / Recommendation

From the findings of this study, it was discovered that H1 titre of indigenous chicks was from 23 and 27 and 23 titre is said to be a protective H1 titre and when chicks are first vaccinated against ND, and anticipated serological H1 titre of 23 is assumed to be protective against the disease although not against the mutant virus therefore, a booster will raise the serological titre to 25 and improved management practices is important.

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