An Assessment Of Teaching Methods Adopted By Social Studies Teachers In Junior Secondary Schools

Social Studies Project Topic

An Assessment Of Teaching Methods Adopted By Social Studies Teachers In Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the teaching methods adopted by social studies teachers in junior secondary schools using Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to investigate the various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools, find out whether social studies teachers adopt effective teaching methods during teaching process in junior secondary schools, and determine whether an adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed. The population size comprise of social studies teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools includes: Project teaching method, Lecture teaching method, Discussion teaching method, Inquire teaching method, activity teaching method, and problem solving teaching method. The study also revealed that adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should continue to home their skills by attending workshops seminars and other teaching enhancing programmes that can enable them be on top of their game, Teachers should be aware of the right teaching methods to apply in teaching when one method is not effective since a combination of methods is considered most appropriate.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Social Studies is one of the subjects approved by the Federal Ministry of Education to be taught at all levels of education in Nigeria. The emergence of Social Studies in the Nigerian school curriculum was part of the responses to the problems in the society emanating from neglect of societal culture and values (Meziobi, 2012). The Board of Directors of National Council for the Social Studies -NCSS (2017) defined Social Studies as the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. In the same vein, Adaralegbe (2010) viewed Social Studies as the aggregate of experiences a student goes through having been exposed to a course explaining the problems men and women encounter in their environments.

The teaching of Social Studies is meant to provide coordinated, systematic study which draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, economics, geography, history, law philosophy, political science religion and sociology, as well as appropriate contents from the humanities, mathematics and natural sciences. The primary purpose of Social Studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the problem as good citizens of a culturally diverse and democratic society in an inter- dependent world.

According to National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)(2017), two main characteristics distinguish Social Studies as a field of study; it is designed to promote civic competence and it is integrative as it incorporates many fields of endeavour. Social Studies programmes help students construct a knowledge base and attitude drawn from academic disciplines in specialized ways of viewing reality. From the premises above, the objectives of Social Studies could be seen to be three -fold namely: To help learners acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes and values.

However for Social Studies to achieve its aims, there is need for a change in the teaching methods that have been in use for Social Studies education. This is important because Meziobi (2010) lamented that poor teaching methods have been one of the banes of Social Studies education in Nigeria. Most teachers of Social Studies adopt pedagogical skills that do not promote better understanding of the concept. Mbah (2018) equally argued that if teachers must be effective in their teachings and clear students’ confusion then there is need for the use of innovative teaching methods that will open student’s natural ways of learning. That is why Danjuma (2010) averred that some teaching methods are not ideal as they may not produce the desired result.

Experts in teaching and learning have advanced some innovative teaching methods which could enhance effective learning. These include multi-media, use of internet, problem solving strategies, cooperative groups, discrepant event strategy and the use of collaborative learning (Yusuf, 2014; Haruna, 2018,) Multi-media for example appeal to more than one sense organ at a time and can address a large audience simultaneously (Ema & Ajayi, 2008). These innovative teaching methods have been applauded for their capabilities in actively engaging learners during learning which promotes better understanding of the learned concepts.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Social Studies is one of the subjects taught in the Nigerian education system at all levels of education. The teaching and learning of Social Studies is meant to help learners acquire knowledge, skills and values and attitudes which enable citizens to make reasoned decisions to promote civic competence. This being the case, it then goes to mean that the teaching of Social Studies is expected to inculcate desired knowledge, skills, values and attitudes in learners.

However, at present, these objectives have not yet been achieved satisfactorily in the students. A lot of students do not possess the right knowledge, skills or values expected of them. The reason may be due to the use of poor teaching methods by teachers of Social Studies in teaching the concepts of Social Studies. There seems to be a problem with the teaching methods used by teachers of Social Studies. It seems as if the present teaching methods and strategies used by Social Studies teachers are not plausible enough to achieve the objectives of Social Studies. Now, the problem of this study is embedded in this broad question; what new strategies and methods could be developed for teaching contemporary Social Studies?


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to assess the teaching methods adopted by social studies teachers in junior secondary schools. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. Investigate the various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools.
  2. Find out whether social studies teachers adopt effective teaching methods during teaching process in junior secondary schools.
  3. Determine whether an adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. What are the various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools?
  2. Does social studies teachers adopt effective teaching methods during teaching process in junior secondary schools?
  3. Does adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Adopted teaching method does not determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.
  • Ha: Adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be of immense benefit to social studies teachers, curriculum planners, Ministry of Education, teacher training institution and researchers and psychologists. The outcome of this study will expose social studies teachers to more effective techniques of promoting learning, which help to minimize student’s low achievement in the subjects. Since guided inquiry method is interaction-oriented, it will equally enable them see the need why they should ensure that their classes posses qualities of guided classroom which include being democratic, and allowing active participation of learners. In a class where all these qualities exist, students will be active, inquisitive and will be able to transfer what they learnt in the classroom to real life situation The findings will be of use to the curriculum planners, to plan social studies curriculum in such a way that the contents will be filled with activities which teachers and students will do together. The federal ministry of education and other researchers will through this study organize workshops, seminars and conferences for review of pedagogy in teaching to address the issue of integrating new ideas on teaching of social studies. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on an assessment of teaching methods adopted by social studies teachers in junior secondary schools. The study will further investigate the various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools, find out whether social studies teachers adopt effective teaching methods during teaching process in junior secondary schools, and determine whether an adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools. However the respondents for this study will be obtained from social studies teachers of some selected secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching

Teaching often involves inquiring, listening, providing information, explaining a phenomena, showing a skill or process, testing understanding and ability, and enabling learning activities

Teaching Method

Teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.
Social Studies: can be defined as the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the teaching methods adopted by social studies teachers in junior secondary schools using Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the teaching methods adopted by social studies teachers in junior secondary schools using Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to investigate the various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools, find out whether social studies teachers adopt effective teaching methods during teaching process in junior secondary schools, and determine whether an adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were social studies teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The various methods of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools includes: Project teaching method, Lecture teaching method, Discussion teaching method, Inquire teaching method, activity teaching method, and problem solving teaching method.
  2. Social studies teachers do not adopt effective teaching methods during teaching process in junior secondary schools.
  3. Adopted teaching method determines the effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should continue to home their skills by attending workshops seminars and other teaching enhancing programmes that can enable them be on top of their game, Teachers should be aware of the right teaching methods to apply in teaching when one method is not effective since a combination of methods is considered most appropriate.
  2. School owners and administrator should employ qualified teachers, train and retrain them from time to time so that they can meet up to the set standards.
  3. School owners and administrators should create a conducive teaching a learning environment, particular in the area of class size.
  4. Government should provide incentives that can boost the educational sector which the schools fait under in terms of infrastructure and basic amenities like, Water table, electricity supply, desks and chairs, chalk boards improved toilet facilities etc.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the three methods of teaching social studies?

However, Barr. Barth and Shemis (1977) stated that social studies teaching methodologies should be based on the three traditions namely social studies taught as citizenship transmission; social studies taught as social sciences and social studies taught reflective inquiry.

How to choose the right Social Studies method for your classroom?

Within a particular lesson, the teacher may need to employ several methods. Thus they include that the criteria considered in the choice of any social studies method include the child’s physiological, psychological background and the nature of the concepts under study.

What are the objectives of Social Studies?

Social studies objectives require teaching methods that are activity-based and encourage curiosity and active participation in teaching/learning 1 process as well as consider the learners perception of the universe and problem-solving approach of the discipline.  

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