Assessment Of Mass Media Availability And Level Of Usage In The Teaching And Learning
This research was carried out to assess mass media availability and level of usage in the teaching and learning of Government in Lagos State schools. The research design for this study was descriptive survey and it employed the used of two questionnaires: Teachers Questionnaire on Availability and Level of Usage of Mass Media (TQALMM) and Students’ Questionnaire on Availability and Level of Usage of Mass Media (SQALMM) to collect data from a population sample of 100 teachers and 100 students. There was a significant relationship between the availability and level of usage of mass media in teaching and learning Government as a subject. However, there was a significant difference among teachers in their perception of the challenges faced in using mass media to teach Government as a subject. There was also a significant difference in the perception of students about challenges faced in learning Government. There should also be an ICT department in every school to help teachers and students alike to make the best use of ICT equipment.
1.1 Background of the Study
According to Wikipedia, education is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits. According to John Dewey (1916), it is a social process –a process of living and not a preparation for future living. Education is from three Latin words: educatum meaning the act of teaching or training, educare meaning to bring up or to raise, educere meaning to lead forth or to come outEducation is the nourishing of the good qualities in man and the drawing out of the best in every individual .Education is often confused with schooling famously called banking by Paulo Freire (1973) i.e to make deposits of knowledge on learners like objects acted on rather than individuals to be related to. Individuals should be given time to discover truth and possibility. Education means to develop a person morally (affective), physically (psychomotor) and mentally (cognitive). It is the foundation of the society and the best investment for the people. The main purpose of education is to prepare and qualify people for work in the society and to socialize them, preparing the young for adulthood. Education enables a person to understand his/her cultural identity. Education provides a forum to evaluate and find solutions to problems in a society. Education teaches learners to maintain social order. Education and mass media have overtime enjoyed a sweet-sour relationship. On the one hand, TV and newspapers have provided extensive useful education content, and acted as watchdog of public activities; however, its role has been compromised these days by the battle for survival in the media industry. Education experts look up to the media to do more than act as a watchdog, and help to build an efficient education system by bridging the communication gap between the government and educational policy makers. The media plays a significant role in the design, manipulation and sustenance of international diplomacy and body politics. For the adolescent, the media has become a socializing agent. Adolescence is a time of self-identification. Therefore, family influences decreases while peer influence increases. Media is the means and channel through which information and news reach individuals that constitute the local national, regional, Continental and or international, audience. In recent times, media has become a political tool of the dominant paradigm in the national, continental and international politics. In Africa, and nearly most other third world countries, national governments use the potential of media information and language to manipulate the masses and influence public opinion. The media is used to maintain and retain the status quo. But with media power, all those who have vested interests in its control make the ordinary citizen a mere puppet. Subjective reporting is the selection of content and media coverage for some diplomatic and political motive. Through subjective reporting, global media initiates, instigates, fuel and aggravates crises and conflicts that later degenerates into terrorism (trans-national and international). According to social responsibility media theory, duties of the media include:
- To serve the political system by making information, discussion, consideration of public affairs generally accessible.
- To inform the public to enable it to take self determined actions.
- To protect the rights of the individual by acting as a watchdog over government.
However, there are harmful effects of mass media. Firstly, teachers only use media to get attention to the subject matter, to reward good behavior, and to keep kids quiet and under control. Media content can sensationalise violent behavior, exposure to subtle or explicit sexual content, promotion of poor health habits and exposure to advertising targeting children. Moreover, majority of programmes for children and youth in developing countries are imported.
Unfortunately, most of the content contains character messages that are not relevant to local culture. Youth programming has reduced in face of funding cuts and growing competition from private channels. As rich in content as the television is in instructional, education programming and news reportage, students and teachers are not abreast of socio-political issues. This is because TV news reportage and programming are beyond students’ comprehension on how to extract and analyse information. TV programming and news reportage are politically inclined and biased. Major TV networks in Nigeria chase for airtime. Money dictates what is shown on Nigerian TV screens. This ultimately means that people who have the funds e.g the government, rich politicians, private investors, multicorporationsetc determine what is broadcast on TV. Corporations and private investors are profit oriented and will push any media content that will reach their target audience to make enough profit while the government and politicians are after promoting good image through propaganda especially during the electoral process. Therefore teachers and students are left with media content devoid of socio-political significance or tainted with cheap propaganda. Media content have generally been commercialized.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The challenges of availability of media are enormous: propaganda and brown envelope journalism, foreign nature of media conten, the bombardment of advertisement, reluctance to encourage youth programmes, regional and sectional interests, power outage, accessibility of the internet and inadequate ICT equipment. The cost of airing T.V programmes is very high so producers sacrifice educational programmes for entertainment which is readily sponsored by corporate bodies because it is profitable.
The radio appeals to different audiences and ethnic, religious differences (segmentation). This makes its usage very selective as students might find it difficult to tune to a station for information. Internet penetration in Nigeria is very high now and its subscription too. Students might not be able to afford subscription fee and might not have access to ICT equipment e.g laptops, personal computers, phones, hand-held devices etc to download E-books. The digital divide between teachers and students is quite alarming. Most teachers do not possess the knowledge of handling ICT equipment and find it difficult to keep abreast with current trends. This affects their level of usage and they retort back to old media for information instead of complementing both sources of information.
The shelf life of newspapers is very low and this causes both students and teachers to assess magazines because of its attractiveness and shelf life. The challenges of using the media include poor reading skills.Due to technological development, reading habits are changing. Students now lack the skill of reading. Instead they spend more hours on electronic media. The acquisition of reading skills have a beneficial effect on all school subjects including social science, math and so on. Unfortunately, reading is not taught or included in school curriculum. Only a few schools have good libraries while majority have limited dog-eared books locked up in few cupboards. There is unprecedented rise in the price of books while DVDS are becoming more affordable.
The vast information of the world’s information is not digitized. Rather, it is in print form mostly in books. Aina (2011).Children with poor reading habits have a higher chance of anti social behaviour. Today’s populace between the age bracket 18-34 are increasingly using the web as their medium of choice for news consumption. Local TV remains the most accessed source of the news and the internet is quickly becoming the most favourite of young consumers. About 44% of these age bracket use the internet for news and about 19% use the printed newspapers. Moral degeneration and decadence, gross obsession and abuse of social networking, inadequate knowledge by teachers are other challenges of using the media. Unfortunately, the endemic power outages in the country pose a limiting factor to the extent to which the radio can be used to effectively broadcast educational programmes.
The problem associated with the television is whether a separate channel will be assigned educational programmes or to establish separate TV houses for the purposes of education. There is also the problem of incessant power outages. The influence of electronic media in educating students is not socially progressive. It has resulted to frustration on the part of many teachers who do not have inadequate knowledge of electronic media technologies like computer internet, education software etc.
Also it is time consuming and skill demanding for teachers . Users of electronic media, for example, students can be vunerable to unintended misuses of electronic media e.g social media. Social networks grab the total attention and concentration of the students and diverts them towards non educational, unethical, and inappropriate actions such as useless chatting, time killing by random searching and not doing their jobs. Inadequate infrastructure, including computer hardware, software, bandwidth, are major challenges in using the digital media. Agbamuche, (2015).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The purpose of this study is to:
- Find out the availability of mass media to Government teachers in secondary schools.
- Determine the availability of mass media to Government students in secondary schools.
- Assess the challenges in the availability of mass media to Government teachers in secondary schools.
- Assess the challenges in the availability of mass media to Government students in secondary schools.
- Evaluate the level of usage of mass media by Government teachers in secondary schools.
- Assess the level of usage of mass media by Government students in secondary schools.
- Analyse the challenges of using mass media by Government teachers in secondary schools.
- Assess the challenges of using mass media by Government students in secondary schools.
- Appraise the availability of mass media in teaching and learning Government in secondary schools.
- Appraise the level of usage of mass media in teaching and learning Government in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between the availability and level of usage of mass media in teaching Government as a subject.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between the availability and level of usage of mass media in learning Government as a subject.
- Ho: There is no significant difference in the perception of teachers about challenges using the media
- Hi: There is no significant difference in the perception of students about challenges using the media
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will help Government teachers and students to avail themselves to the best practices and the most effective usage of mass media in order to reduce the negative influences of the media that hinders fruitful academic learning. This study will also help to create awareness on the best form of mass media effective for teaching and learning the subject.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is an assessment of mass media availability and level of usage in the teaching and learning of Government in Lagos state schools. However, the scope of this study will be limited to Government teachers and students in Pedro, Shomolu Local Government, Lagos State. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Mass media is the means used to communicate to the general public. In this lesson, you will learn the different platforms for mass media and the influence that mass media has on society
Teaching is an instruction or delivering a particular skill or subject or something that someone tells you to do. For Teaching in this case may refer to showing or explaining to a student how to do something.
Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of mass media availability and level of usage in the teaching and learning.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of non- availability of mass media for teaching and learning in schools.
This study aimed at having a critical analysis of mass media availability and level of usage in the teaching and learning. Ten objectives were raised to guide the study.
Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
The mass media has a great impact on the educational growth of Nigeria; therefore, underutilization of media educational programmes is wastage of immense proportions. In this context there is a need to formulate perfect guidelines for use of media in education in teaching and learning of Government in secondary schools.
There should be more focus on education in lieu of entertainment. This will make it easier for students not to be distracted from schoolwork. If possible, the media should make learning fun by airing programs and publishing articles that will encourage students to be more interested in studying or learning government as a subject in school.
Private media organisations should understand that the government alone is not responsible educational programmes; the onus also lies on them too. They should be involved in getting personnel and equipment to facilitate educational media for teaching Government. This can be done by getting sponsors.
Mass media resources should be made available and accessible to all students, to enhance its usage in learning government.
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