Assessment Of Knowledge And Risk Perception Of Typhoid Fever Among Residents Of Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Assessment Of Knowledge And Risk Perception Of Typhoid Fever Among Residents Of Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the assessment of knowledge and risk perception of typhoid fever among residents of Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of residents of Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 113 respondents and 85 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of typhoid fever in Onikokoro Community is high.The study also revealed that the residents of Onikokoro Community has some knowledge about typhoid fever, its severity, causes, transmission mode and preventive measures.

Furthermore, the study revealed that the risk factors and practices associated with typhoid fever in the community include; exposure to sun does not contribute to typhoid fever infection, lack of enough and reliable water sources contribute to typhoid fever, lack of neat/health toilet facilities contributes to typhoid fever, poor sanitation practices contribute to typhoid fever infections, and eating unwashed raw vegetables contribute to typhoid fever. Therefore, it is recommended that there is a need for the Onikokoro Community population to increase their knowledge of the risk factors and causes of typhoid fever. There is a need for the provision of basic amenities, for example, safe water and toilet facilities in the community. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Typhoid fever is a systemic prolonged febrile illness caused by certain Salmonella serotypes including Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B and S. paratyphi C. It emerged as an important infectious disease in the early 19th century. The illness begins with mounting fever, headache, vague abdominal pain and constipation, which may be followed by appearance of rashes. During the third week, the patient reaches a state of prolonged apathy, toxemia, delirium, disorientation and/or coma followed by diarrhoea. If left untreated, it can lead to complications affecting various organ systems (Fauci et al., 2008). Infection occurs in all age groups with a higher incidence and more variable clinical presentation in children. Since the late 1940s typhoid fever was successfully treated with one of the several antibiotics, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoptrim-sulphamethoxazole. However, from 1990, multidrug resistant strains to the previously useful antibiotics have emerged, and treatment for such strains requires the use of more expensive quinolone antibiotics such as oral ciprofloxacin or third generation cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone (WHO, 2003). Human beings are the only reservoir and host for typhoid fever, and the disease is transmitted by faecally contaminated water and food in endemic areas especially by carriers handling food. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for annual global incidence of typhoid fever, about 21 million cases with >600,000 deaths. Cases are more likely to be seen in areas like India, South and Central America, and Africa with rapid population growth, increased urbanization, and limited safe water, infrastructure, and health systems (Willke et al., 2002, John et al., 2004).

Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries where safe water supplies and adequate sewage disposal are often lacking. Epidemiologic data on typhoid fever in endemic countries is lacking or incomplete. Case identification may be based on clinical, bacteriological or serologic diagnosis; or typhoid fever may be clumped with other diseases or conditions such as fever of unknown origin (Abucejo et al., 2001). Typhoid fever has important socioeconomic impact because, most of the time, several months are necessary for a patient to recover and be able to work again. So accurate diagnosis of typhoid fever at an early stage is important not only for etiological diagnosis, but also to identify individuals that may serve as a potential carrier, who may be responsible for acute typhoid fever outbreaks (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2002). Several options exist for diagnosing enteric fever: clinical signs and symptoms; serological markers; bacterial culture; antigen detection; and DNA amplification. The clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever is difficult because the manifestations of the disease are diverse and there are many causes of prolonged fever in typhoid endemic regions. Signs such as relative bradychardia or leucopoenia may be useful but give a low specificity. The culture of blood, bone marrow and stool are the most reliable diagnostic methods but these are expensive techniques and the infecting organism may be dead on arrival at the hospital if the patient has taken antibiotics before clinical samples can be taken. Serological diagnosis is predominantly by the Felix-Widal test, first standardized in the 1950s. Although ELISA and immunoblotting suggest possibilities, the commercially available kits for the serodiagnosis of enteric fever have not performed well in large studies (Wain and Hosoglu, 2008). Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in the developing world with very poor estimates of the number of cases and deaths annually. Continued research on the epidemiology, ecology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of typhoid can most optimally be pursued in the endemic regions which, unfortunately, also suffer from a lack of research capacity, funding support, and institutional infrastructure. Much needs to be done to promote and strengthen typhoid fever and other infectious disease research in these regions if true progress is to be made. Information across sub-Saharan Africa is very scarce and the issues clearly require urgent and rapid action, particularly in West and East Africa (Ethiopia and Kenya) which seems to have a high burden of typhoid fever (Pang, 2008). In the light of the above, this study aims at examining the knowledge and risk perception towards typhoid fever among Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease transmitted by the fecal-oral route (Keddy et al., 2016; Shukla et al., 2014). The infection typically occurs from the ingestion or consumption of food or drinks infected with bacteria, usually transported by flies from the feces or urine of infected individuals (Keddy et al., 2016; Shukla et al., 2014). In Onikokoro Community, these flies transport disease to people’s homes, not only as a result of the poor conditions of the environment, but also due to the open defecation practiced by some of the villagers. The disease has been a significant public health issue in low and middle-income countries,

Furthermore, poor knowledge and risk perception towards typhoid fever contributed to the prolonged transmission of diseases in the community. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and risk perception towards typhoid fever among Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically assess knowledge and risk perception towards typhoid fever among Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine the prevalence of typhoid fever in Onikokoro Community.
  2. Ascertain the knowledge of Onikokoro Community dwellers towards typhoid fever.
  3. Identify the risk factors and practices associated with typhoid fever.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of typhoid fever in Onikokoro Community?
  2. What is the knowledge of Onikokoro Community dwellers towards typhoid fever?
  3. What are the risk factors and practices associated with typhoid fever in the community?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study centers on the pursuit to fill a gap in the literature by promoting the awareness of typhoid fever and the specific risk factors among the villagers in Onikokoro Community. The findings from this study and understanding of these risk factors will not only contribute to the knowledge of appropriate hygienic practices associated with typhoid fever among the villagers but could also help researchers to facilitate positive social change within them. Findings from the individual views and perspective of the residents may provide opportunities for promoting positive social change with the goal of implementing the ideas for improving hygiene and sanitary conditions. The implication for social change include increased understanding of the perceptions of the disease, the perception of the effects of open defecation on the practice of eating and sleeping on the floor, and a policy decision forthe provisions of toilet facilities and potable water in the community that will limit the effect of the disease within the population.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess knowledge and risk perception towards typhoid fever among Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State. However, the study will further determine the prevalence of typhoid fever in Onikokoro Community, ascertain the knowledge of Onikokoro Community dwellers towards typhoid fever, and identify the risk factors and practices associated with typhoid fever.

The respondents for this study will therefore be obtained from residents of Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Prevalence:

Is a measure of the frequency of existing disease at a given time.

Typhoid Fever:

This is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the assessment of knowledge and risk perception of typhoid fever among residents of Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State.The study is was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of typhoid fever in Onikokoro Community, ascertain the knowledge of Onikokoro Community dwellers towards typhoid fever, and identify the risk factors and practices associated with typhoid fever.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 85 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were residents in Onikokoro Community, Olorunda Local Government, Ibadan Oyo State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of typhoid fever in Onikokoro Community is high.
  2. The residents of Onikokoro Community has some knowledge about typhoid fever, its severity, causes, transmission mode and preventive measures.
  3. The risk factors and practices associated with typhoid fever in the community include; exposure to sun does not contribute to typhoid fever infection, lack of enough and reliable water sources contribute to typhoid fever, lack of neat/health toilet facilities contributes to typhoid fever, poor sanitation practices contribute to typhoid fever infections, and eating unwashed raw vegetables contribute to typhoid fever.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. There is a need for the Onikokoro Community population to increase their knowledge of the risk factors and causes of typhoid fever. There is a need for the provision of basic amenities, for example, safe water and toilet facilities in the community.
  2. Local health desk should strengthen supportive supervision for health extension workers in order to strengthen effective health education to the community on the causes of the diseases and possible preventives measures.
  3. Health institution of the area should include health education program. •
  4. The municipal office of the town should work on the waste disposal system.

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