Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice On Injection Safety Among Health Care Workers In St Philomena Hospital In Edo State

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Assessment Of Knowledge And Practice On Injection Safety Among Health Care Workers In St Philomena Hospital In Edo State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the knowledge and practice on injection safety among health care workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. To achieve this, five significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of all the healthcare workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents while 55 were received and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency, and mean score tables. The result of the findings reveals that health workers’ does not have adequate knowledge about injection safety at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. Also, the study discovered that the injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State include; hand hygiene, use of new syringe and needle, no recapping of used needle, and proper disposal of sharps. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that clinical instructors should collaborate with nurse and hospital administrators to encourage and ensure display of guidelines of universal precaution and supply injection safety material/resource. And regular workshops and seminars are organized for nurses by Continuous education unit in collaboration with the hospital administration to continue to educate them, especially newly recruited nurses on the need to always adhere to and comply with injection safety guidelines. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The safety of injection is an important issue in today’s healthcare where injectable medications and vaccines are commonly used. Coupled with this is the high burden of blood-borne pathogens with potential of transmission through accidental exposure to contaminated needles and syringes(Zaffran, 2009). Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that billions of injections are administered every year within healthcare settings(WHO, 2010). These injections according to the WHO are commonly used for curative purposes, most of which are unnecessary and avoidable. Inappropriate injections can lead to avoidable harm particularly in developing countries where safety resources and practices cannot always be guaranteed(Kermode, 2004). A recent estimate of the burden of blood-borne infections due to unsafe injection practices revealed that up to 46% of hepatitis B, 38% of hepatitis C and 12% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are associated with unsafe injections.4 Furthermore, unsafe injection practices can fuel the transmission of other emerging and reemerging infectious diseases such as the Ebola virus disease(Bhuvan, 2013). Modelling using the fraction of unsafe injection-associated bloodborne viral infections estimated a burden of 9.18 million preventable disability-adjusted life years from 2000 to 2030(Armstrong, 2000). According to the WHO’s Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN), a safe injection is one that does not harm the recipient, does not expose the provider (HCWs) to any avoidable risks and does not result in waste that is dangerous to the community(Drucker, 20001). Hence, safe injection practice involves the administration of rational injection by a qualified and well-trained person using a sterile device, right technique, proper disposal and management of the wastes generated. The SIGN was launched by the WHO as an alliance of global stakeholders to support and ensure the safe, logical and proper use of injections worldwide(Kamal et al, 2012). One of the strategies to achieve the goal of this coalition as highlighted by SIGN is the behaviour change of healthcare workers. The healthcare workers are those individuals who deliver health services such as injection to the sick either directly as nurses and physicians or indirectly as environmental health, laboratory and other supportive staff including waste handlers(Jagger, 2007). It is believed that behaviour change amongthe injection providers will improve the healthcare workers’ and patient safety by preventing the reuse of injection equipment, reducing unnecessary injections, prevention of needlestick injuries and enhancement of community safety via safe sharps and other waste management (Onyemocho, 2013). In Nigeria, a national policy on injection safety and healthcare waste management was formulated in 2007 to address the problem of unsafe injection practices. The policy supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) project included training programmes for healthcare workers on injection safety in the context of infection prevention and control and behaviour change(Bhushra, 2011).Despite the existence of the policy document and training of the healthcare providers, high burden of injections and unsafe practices was reported in parts of Nigeria. It is against this background that this study tends the assess the


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the existence of the policy document and training of the healthcare providers, high burden of injections and unsafe practices was reported in parts of Nigeria (Enokela Onum, 2013).In addition, an array of studies found that around half of the healthcare workers had poor or low level of injection safety knowledge(Musa & Akande,2011).Equally, a wide gap was reported between the injection safety knowledge and practice with many injection providers engaging in unsafe injection practices such as recapping of used needles and syringes (Akintimi, 2011).Currently, little is known about the knowledge and practice of injection safety among healthcare workers in sub-urban hospitals of Nigeria. Consequently, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice on injection safety among health care workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. It is hoped that findings will help inform professionals, patient groups and policymakers.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice on injection safety among health care workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. Specifically the study sought to: •

  1. Assess health workers’ level of knowledge about injection safety at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. •
  2. Assess injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. •
  3. Ascertain the barriers to injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State.

1.4 Research Question

The questions below will serve as a guide for this study;

  1. What is health workers’ level of knowledge about injection safety at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State?
  2. What are the injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State?
  3. What are the barriers to injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Recommendations from the study if implemented will improve the level of knowledge, practices of injection safety and adherence by health workers to precautionary measures.

Educationally, findings will aid nurses and midwives to create awareness on the dangers of poor practices such as needle stick injuries, transmission of HIV, hepatitis Band C and other blood borne infections.

Policy makers and hospital administrators through the findings will promote and reinforce injection safety guidelines, create enabling environment and provide adequate resources for nurses and other health care workers to carry out injection safety practices.

The study will also provide a baseline for future researchers in relevant topic.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess the knowledge and practice on injection safety among health care workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. However, the study will further assess health workers’ level of knowledge about injection safety at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State, assess injection safety practices among health workers atSt Philomena Hospital In Edo State, and ascertain the barriers to injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State.

The respondents for this study will be obtained among healthcare workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Safe Injection also called aseptic injection practice is a medical procedure that neither causes harm to the patient nor exposed the nurses to any avoidable risk and also not results in waste that is hazardous to the community (WHO, 2010).

Unsafe Injection include number of harmful practices considered harmful to either patients, healthcare providers or the community around such as multiple use of single-use needles and syringes, recapping of needles and improper disposal of sharps


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the knowledge and practice on injection safety among health care workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State. The study is was specifically carried out to asses health workers’ level of knowledge about injection safety at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State, assess injection safety practices among health workers atSt Philomena Hospital In Edo State, and ascertain the barriers to injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were health workers in St Philomena Hospital In Edo State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Health workers’ does not have adequate knowledge about injection safety at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State.
  2. The injection safety practices among health workers atSt Philomena Hospital In Edo State include; hand hygiene, use of new syringe and needle, no recapping of used needle, and proper disposal of sharps.
  3. The barriers to injection safety practices among health workers at St Philomena Hospital In Edo State include; none display of injection safety guidelines, inadequate supply of injection safety material and resources, lack of training and retraining, emergency nature of some cases, work pressure, and workers’ lack of adequate knowledge.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Clinical instructors should collaborate with nurse and hospital administrators to encourage and ensure display of guidelines of universal precaution and supply injection safety material/resources.
  2. Available logistics and support supervision should be put in place to ensure that health workers adhere to standard guidelines and practices.
  3. Support and counselling services be provided for staff that reported sharp injuries,
  4. Nursing Services, Continuing Education and Infection Control Unit in the hospital and diseases organise more seminars, stressing on the importance of injection safety.
  5. Nurses should continue to practice injection safety in order to prevent occupational hazard and the spread of infectious diseases that could be transmitted through unsafe injection practices.
  6. Regular workshops and seminars are organized for nurses by Continuous education unit in collaboration with the hospital administration to continue to educate them, especially newly recruited nurses on the need to always adhere to and comply with injection safety guidelines.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What factors influence compliance with standard precautions among health workers?

Knowledge and training in standard precautions, high risk perception and longer duration of professional experience have been shown to be associated with improved compliance with standard precautions among health workers (Kermode et al., 2005; Luo et al., 2010).

Do healthcare workers in Nigeria know about standard precautions of infection control?

The overall knowledge and attitude toward standard precautions of infection control among healthcare workers in the two tertiary hospitals in the south-south and north-central Nigeria was good.

What are the challenges faced by healthcare workers in developing countries?

The majority of the healthcare workers complained of inadequate resources to practise standard precautions, such as lack of regular running water supply, and the absence of a regular supply of personal protective equipment. 

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