Assessment Of Knowledge And Perception On The Cause And Prevention Of Asthma Among Adult In Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State

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Assessment Of Knowledge And Perception On The Cause And Prevention Of Asthma Among Adult In Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State


Abstract


Asthma is a serious global health problem that affects people of all backgrounds and ages with morbidity and mortality higher among older school-age children and early adolescents which causes have been attributed to inadequate knowledge and the wrong perceptions about asthma. The study assessed the knowledge and perception on the cause and prevention of asthma among adult in ogbomoso north local government of oyo state; investigated the association of certain demographic characteristics with the level of asthma knowledge and perceptions and determined the correlation between the asthma knowledge and perceptions among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State, Nigeria. It is a cross- sectional study which used a pre-tested 71- item, purpose designed, self- administered questionnaires to collect information on knowledge and perceptions of the respondents on asthma. Data were collated and analyzed based on descriptive and inferential study design. The result showed that the majority of the respondents had intermediate level of asthma knowledge (68.5%, 285). It also showed that majority of the respondents 63.7% (265) have intermediate level of asthma perceptions. In addition, the result showed significant association between asthma knowledge score and age of the respondents (p <0.05). It also showed a significant association between asthma perceptions scores and age; (p <0.05). The results also showed significant correlation between asthma knowledge and perceptions scores (p <0.05). It was, therefore, concluded that the adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State, Nigeria have intermediate asthma knowledge and perceptions levels.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

It is now estimated that over 300 million people of all ages, and all ethnic backgrounds, suffer from asthma and the burden of this disease to governments, health care systems, families, and patients is increasing worldwide (Maspero et al, 2013; Vos et al, 2013). It is estimated that the number of people suffering from asthma will grow by more than 100 million worldwide by 2025 (WHO, 2007). This increasing trend is expected due to rise in atopic sensitizations, allergic conditions, and changing patterns of environmental triggers (associated with environmental smoking exposure in children, population growth, and urbanization) in Africa over the last two decades (Braman, 2006).
Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of school- age children and youth, with an increasing prevalence all around the world (Duksal et al, 2014). Current estimates suggest that the prevalence of asthma in children and young adolescents is substantial and stable in high-income countries but increasing in developing countries, which hitherto, had low prevalence (Pearce et al, 2007; Addo-Yobo et al, 2007; Asher et al, 2006). The public health concerns surrounding this childhood health issue include the potential of adverse outcomes, such as the need for acute medical interventions, hospitalization, and mortality in addition to experiencing limitations, school absences or missed work days (CDC, 2012).

Some studies related to the prevalence of asthma in Nigeria among children showed that it has increased from 10.7% to about 20% between 1999 and 2014 (Asher et al, 2014). Recent population studies conducted by various investigators across Nigeria estimate the prevalence of asthma to range from 5.12- 18.6% (Obaseki et al, 2014; Oluwole et al, 2013; Awotedu et al, 2012). The prevalence of asthma among 13-14 year old in a study in Nigeria was 7.5% (95% CI 6.0 to 9.2%) and 8% (95% CI 6.0- 10.4%) in the rural and urban communities respectively (Oluwole et al, 2013).

Asthma is a major health problem among adolescents with studies identifying substantial under- diagnosis, poor acceptance of diagnosis, poor compliance to treatment and poor understanding of asthma management among this population (Oluwole et al, 2017; Musa et al, 2014). The complications of asthma could be influenced by poor knowledge, poor use of inhaler technique, non-compliance and negative attitude toward the illness, those that have the illness and the drugs (Oluwole et al, 2017; Marsden et al, 2016; Anwar et al, 2008). Poor understanding of the disease can result in under- utilisation of available health services and reduced adherence to medication (Ponieman et al, 2009; Zaman et al, 2006). Ultimately this leads to poorly controlled asthma and negatively impacts quality of life (Marsden et al, 2016).The treatment of asthma and maximum asthma control are impacted by patient knowledge, level of education, behavioural changes, adherence to management regimes, physician experience and confidence, and the availability of health care services (Ober, 2005; Masoli et al., 2004). The goal in treatment of asthma is to enable sufferers to live an unrestricted life that is free of symptoms (British Thoracic Society, 2016).

The elements of such management include appropriate anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator medication, education of care givers about the disease, home monitoring and a self- management plan, for example allergen control and attention to psychosocial obstacles to treatment (British Thoracic Society, 2016). It has been suggested that education of health care providers and the public is a vital element of the response to the challenge posed by asthma in Africa (Braman, 2006; Ndiaye et al, 2004).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Asthma is a major health problem among adolescents with studies identifying substantial under- diagnosis, poor acceptance of diagnosis, poor compliance to treatment and poor understanding of asthma management among this population. These have been attributed to inadequate knowledge and the wrong perceptions about asthma. Asthma have been found to continue to be a serious public health problem and is increasingly becoming widespread in the developing world with most asthma related deaths occurring in low and lower-middle income countries including Sub-Saharan Africa. This morbidity and mortality is higher among older school-age children and early adolescents than other age groups across the lifespan. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs are recognized as being major determinants of health behaviour. Improved understanding of perceptions, local belief and behaviour regarding asthma of this target group are crucial if public health programmes are to prove sustainable. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, limited studies focused on young students have been found in the literature and formal studies conducted concerning knowledge and perceptions of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State, Nigeria is sparse. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing knowledge and perceptions of asthma of these adults, investigate the association between their asthma knowledge and perceptions and certain socio-demographic characteristics of these students and determine whether there is correlation between their asthma knowledge and perceptions.


1.3 Research objectives

  1. Assess the level of knowledge of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.
  2. Assess the level of perceptions of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.
  3. Determine the association between asthma knowledge level and socio-demographic characteristics of adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.
  4. Determine the association between asthma perceptions level and socio-demographic characteristics of adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.
  5. Determine the correlation between asthma knowledge and perceptions of adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.

1.4 Research Questions

The major research questions for this study include the followings:

  1. Do adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State know about asthma?
  2. Do adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State have good perceptions of asthma?
  3. Is there any association between asthma knowledge level of these students and their socio- demographic characteristics?
  4. Is there any association between asthma perceptions level of these students and their socio- demographic characteristics?
  5. Is there any correlation between asthma knowledge and perceptions of the adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government of Oyo State?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  • Ho1: There is no association between socio-demographic characteristics and asthma knowledge level of the respondent
  • Ho2: There is no association between socio-demographic characteristics and asthma perceptions level of the respondent

1.6 Significance of Study

There are limited research findings to determine perceptions and knowledge of asthma among adults in Nigeria. This study is, therefore, directed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State, South-West, Nigeria as a case sample. It will also determine the association of certain demographic characteristics of the students with their asthma knowledge and perceptions and to determine whether there is correlation between their asthma knowledge and perceptions. The outcome of the study could also be helpful in determining the predictors of knowledge and perceptions of asthma among the adults in the study area. Finally, the findings from this study could serve as baseline for further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the knowledge and perception on the cause and prevention of asthma among adult in ogbomoso north local government of oyo state. The study is limited to ogbomoso north local government of oyo state. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among adults in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Asthma

Asthma is a major noncommunicable disease (NCD), affecting both children and adults, and is the most common chronic disease among children. Inflammation and narrowing of the small airways in the lungs cause asthma symptoms, which can be any combination of cough, wheeze, shortness of breath and chest tightness.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of knowledge and perception on the cause and prevention of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the assessment of knowledge and perception on the cause and prevention of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on assessing the level of knowledge of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State, assessing the level of perceptions of asthma among adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State; determining the association between asthma knowledge level and socio-demographic characteristics of adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State; determining the association between asthma perceptions level and socio-demographic characteristics of adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State and determining the correlation between asthma knowledge and perceptions of adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 416 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.


5.3 Conclusion

The outcome of this study reveals that majority of the respondents considered in this study have moderate level of asthma knowledge and moderate level of asthma perceptions. Also, the study shows a significant association between asthma knowledge scores and age and also class of the students. It also shows a significant association between asthma perception scores. Lastly, in this study, there was significant correlation between asthma knowledge and asthma perceptions of the adult using Ogbomoso North Local Government Of Oyo State.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings in this study, the followings are therefore recommended:

  1. Regular health education intervention on asthma should be conducted among students in the study area so as to increase their basic knowledge of asthma and correct the myths about it.
  2. Asthma education curriculum should be developed for these students to improve their asthma knowledge and perceptions.
  3. Collaborations between the State ministry of Education and ministry of Health should be enhanced in order to establish policies that will encourage instituting well equipped health centre facilities in the schools where students with asthma can be attended to in case of emergencies and regular monitoring of those with symptoms related to asthma.
  4. Peer- led asthma education programme should be encouraged among students in the study area to allow older and advanced students to teach and interact with students from lower classes in order reinforce their knowledge and help those with asthma to be well received among their peers.

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