Assessment Of Impact Of Principals Supervisory Roles On Teacher’s Performance Of Secondary Schools

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Assessment Of Impact Of Principals Supervisory Roles On Teacher’s Performance Of Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of principals supervisory roles on teacher’s performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. The study was specifically set to determine the impact of principals classroom visitation role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State, establish the impact of principals workshops role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State, and establish the impact of principals demonstration role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher Stratified random sampling technique selected 296 respondents and 266 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores, while the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that principals’ classroom visitation, workshops and demonstration roles significantly influence on teachers job performance in public secondary schools. The study recommends that principals should endeavor to pay adequate attention to classroom visitation and provide professional assistance and guidance were necessary. Also the Educational administrators in collaboration with Teachers Service Board (TSB) should regularly organize workshops so as to enhance teachers’ job performance in schools. Principals should ensure that efforts are made to make the demonstration techniques genuine and natural so that artificiality could be avoided. Conclusion were made and implication of the findings drawn.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education in Nigeria is an instrument for effective national development. The country’s educational goals have been set out in the national policy on education in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individual and the society. The achievement of an educational administrator depends on his/her supervisory skills, capacities and ability to make reasonable decision for effective secondary school administration. Supervision of instruction has become very necessary in recent times because of the importance attached to education and the desire to improve the quality of education in Nigeria. According to Osakwe (2013) supervision is concerned with the provision of professional assistance and guidance to an academic staff and students geared towards the achievement of effective and efficient teaching and learning in the universities. The principal as a supervisor provides professional guidance to teachers in order to improve their competencies for effective teaching process in order to enhance the learning and growth of students. The principal in carrying out his/her duties, assists the teacher to perform effectively in the areas of preparation of lesson plan and lesson notes before lesson delivery, good use of instructional methods and teaching aids, ensuring effective records keeping. He does through class observation, class visitation, workshops, demonstration, research, and classroom management among others. Through supervision, the principal can provide meaningful feedback and direction to teachers that can have profound effect in the learning that occurs in the classroom. The principal as an instructional leader is entrusted with the responsibilities of improving the quality of instructional delivery through adequate supervision of teachers. According to Ugboka (2013) school principals are the administrators whose responsibilities are to provide variety of supervisory skills for teachers to see the need for change thus, plan behavior for effective teaching and learning process. Ezeocha (2014) sees the functions of the principal as supervision of instructions, curriculum development, and evaluation, school community relations and management of school finance, staff and students personnel administration, among others. According to Leigha (2010) the functions of school supervisor in order to carry out effective supervision include; making classroom visits, supervising teachers by checking their scheme of work and lesson notes, checkmating teachers classroom attendance, checking absenteeism and rewarding hardworking teachers as well as punishing indolent ones by assigning administrative duties to them as means of encouraging to do the right things at the right time. However, instructional supervision is the action taken to mentor and monitor subordinates or teachers and provide supportive and conducive atmosphere for improvement on the instructional process. It requires planning, systematic monitoring of subordinates and providing professional guidance and assistance to them in order to ensure the successful implementation of the formal or informal curriculum in the school. Instructional supervision provides opportunities for the supervisees to up-date their skills and knowledge in order to adapt to innovative ways of instructional delivery. Instructional supervision provides a platform for interaction between the principal (supervisor) and the teacher (supervisee) to achieve the desired effects on students (learners). It involves the extent to which the teacher participates in the overall running of the school in order to achieve the expected objectives and goals of the school.

Teachers job performance is concerned with overall ability of the teacher to exhibit the right attitude to work, be committed and dedicated to the teaching roles and making deliberate efforts towards the attainment of educational goals and objectives. The indicator of teachers job performance is evaluated in his/her ability to make deliberate efforts to enhance students academic achievement, possession and display of in-depth knowledge of his or her subject matter, presentation of lesson in a well-organized manner, effective classroom organization and control, participation in the school curriculum activities, regularity and punctuality in the school, maintenance of good interpersonal relationship with subordinates and superiors, discipline, motivation and counseling of students and compliance to teachers professional code of conduct among others. According to Igwe (2008) teachers’ job performance refers to the extent to which teachers are committed to pedagogical delivery and display of moral rightness and academic excellence in the teaching profession. In view of the foregoing, it has become vital that principal supervisory technique be properly directed for effective and efficient teaching-learning and job performance of teachers. This can be possible only through effective supervisory techniques. Nnebedum and Akinfolarin (2017) states that the responsibility of ensuring that effective teaching and learning take place and the extent to which instructional supervisors carry out their duty is by employing various techniques/skills to enhance teachers’ job performance in schools. The use of appropriate techniques of supervision by principals in the school is necessary for the improvement of teaching and learning. There are several instructional supervisory techniques, Obi (2005) outlined many strategies/techniques available for supervisors to help teachers improve on the job and also facilitate effective instruction in schools. Some of the supervisory skills include classroom visitation, workshop/seminars, demonstration, micro-teaching, classroom observation; inter school visitation, clinical supervision, research approach, and self appraisal and among others.

Classroom visitation, imply the visit by the supervisor/principal to the classroom to watch teacher and students in action. According to Ani (2015) the purpose of such visit whether scheduled or unscheduled should be to aid teachers. It is also an avenue to study the nature and quality of the students’ learning and means by which the teacher guides or directs it. Classroom visitation therefore, allows the principal as supervisor to assess the curriculum in action. It offers the principal an opportunity to understand the status of curriculum and the experience which the students are having. Through visitation, the principal can detect defects in the curriculum or in the teaching and learning process. During class visits the supervisor (principal) should take cognizance of the position of the teacher before his/her students and the effects of his/her presence on the teaching and learning activity. The supervisor (principal) should also be friendly to allow the entire class to be free to express themselves (Ogunsanju, 2006). The use of workshop technique as supervisory skills is gradually being recognized. The technique offers a group of people working together an opportunity to be able to identify problems and proffer solution to them during discussion and conferences under the supervision of resource persons or professionals. Nwaham (2008) notes that the concept of teachers workshop can be in two folds, all school teachers meeting with supervisor and individual teachers meeting with supervisor. Nwaham further maintains that all school teachers meeting is more or less a staff meeting in the school during which exchange of ideas take place and new innovative ideas are brought forth. Workshop is a supervisory technique where people share their knowledge in group towards achieving common goal. Demonstration technique/skill is another supervisory technique which involves teaching and learning activities in which the principal who is skilled and experienced illustrates the use of educational materials, procedures or strategies in order to improve instruction. During demonstration vice chancellors clearly explain the subject matter using vivid examples. However, principal as supervisor should allocate adequate time in practicing teaching demonstration and supervisory services for effective and efficient instructional improvement in the secondary school system of education.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The success of a principal depends on his ability to discharge his supervisory skills and make judicious use of his managerial skills. There are speculations by stakeholders of secondary school education, especially educational administrators, parents, and students that lack of adequate supervisory and managerial skills of many principal jeopardize the effectiveness of public secondary schools resulting in poor academic performance of students in those public schools. The negative attitudes of teachers and poor academic performance of students in secondary schools particularly in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State is connected to poor supervisory skills and competences of principals in these public secondary schools. The ability of teachers to render cooperative and effective service will determine the extent to which schools will achieve their goals and objectives. This is because; the actual work of pedagogy and the attainment of educational results rest on the shoulders of teachers of these schools. Teachers in the study area are expected to prepare lesson notes, teach and evaluate students’ performance during and at the end of the term. The extent to which teachers carry out these duties depends on how effective their principals are performing their instructional supervisory roles.

It is observed in the study area that there is laxity on the part of teachers in their professional role performance. Many teachers are merely staying on the job to look for better jobs outside resulting in the constant cases of absenteeism, persistent lateness to school, irregular and unauthorized movement from duty post and other forms of indiscipline. These attitudes constitute a big problem to the attainment of educational goals in the universities in the study area. This is an indication that instructional supervision is not regularly done by the principals in order to provide professional guidance and assistance to teachers to enable them improve on their instructional delivery. The school principals in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State seem to spend more of their official hours on other administrative duties to the detriment of supervision of instruction. It is in the light of this unpleasant situation that this study was set out to investigate the impact of principals supervisory roles on teacher’s performance of secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of principals supervisory roles on teacher’s performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study will;

  1. Determine the impact of principals classroom visitation role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State,
  2. Establish the impact of principals workshops role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State,
  3. Establish the impact of principals demonstration role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions guide this study;

  1. What is the impact of principals classroom visitation role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State?
  2. What is the impact of principals workshops role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State,?
  3. What is the impact of principals demonstration role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

  • Ho1: Principals classroom visitation role has no significant influence on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State.
  • Ho2: Principals workshops role has no significant influence on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools.
  • Ho3: Principals demonstration role has no significant influence on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings and recommendations of this study may be of immense benefit to stakeholders in education such as the Educational administrators, government, teachers, parents, students and the general public who may device means of applying the recommendations of this study in the effective supervision of institutions particularly public secondary schools in improving and enhancing teachers job performance as well as students academic attainment. Again, the findings of this study would open the eyes of the educational administrators, principals to the relevance of classroom visitation, workshops technique and demonstration techniques. Similarly, the government through the findings of this study may get pertinent information on the influence of principals supervisory technique as correlate of teachers job performance in public secondary schools in Nigeria and Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State in particular and device means of ameliorating the difficulties in the administration of public secondary schools occasional by the lack of principals classroom visitation, workshops and demonstration techniques among others. Additionally such recommendations may help the government to be more proactive in appointing principals for those public secondary schools and management of education generally. Finally, the findings and recommendations of this study may expand the frontiers of knowledge by contributing to the knowledge bank on the impact of principals supervisory roles on teacher’s performance of secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study covers the principal’s supervisory skills and teachers job performance in secondary school. Geographically, this study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Principal:

This refers to the head of a school or other educational institution.

Supervision:

This is the process or act of seeing to it thatthe policies, principles and methods established for achieving the objectives of education are properly and successfully carried out.

Educational Supervision:

This has been defined as all efforts of designated school officials toward providing leadership to teachers and other educational workers in the improvement of instructions. It involves the stimulation of professional growth and development of teachers, the selection and revision of educational objectives, instructional materials, and methods of teaching and the evaluation of instructions (Ogunsaju, 2003).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of principals supervisory roles on teacher’s performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of principals supervisory roles on teacher’s performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. The study was specifically set to determine the impact of principals classroom visitation role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State, establish the impact of principals workshops role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State, and establish the impact of principals demonstration role on teachers job performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 266 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are secondary school teachers in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, it has been established that principals’ supervisory techniques has significant influence on teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. The study also concluded that the variables of principals supervisory techniques investigated in this study such as principals’ class visitation, workshops and demonstration role significantly influence on teachers job performance in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Principals should endeavor to pay adequate attention to classroom visitation technique, observe teachers classroom instructional delivery as well provide professional assistance and guidance were necessary hence encouraging teachers to focus on instructional delivery of knowledge to students as opposed to situation of handling out assignments and undertaking classroom duties in a mechanical manner.
  2. The educational administrators in collaboration with teachers service Board (TSB) should regularly organize workshops, Seminars and conferences for teachers and principals to enhance higher job performance and instructional improvement as the act making progress in instructional delivery for better academic achievement in educational institutions
  3. The principal and the educational administrators should ensure that efforts are made to make the demonstration genuine and natural so that artificiality could be avoided, Also teachers should be encouraged to be more practical through demonstration in order to concretize students’ independent skills and talents.

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