Assessment Of Some Heavy Metals In Sediment

Project and Seminar Material for Fishery and Aquaculture

Assessment Of Some Heavy Metals In Sediment


Abstract


Sediment samples from Ikpoba River in Benin City, Edo State were sampled and analysed for heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer solar 969 unicam series. Some physio-chemcal properties of the sediment were also determined. The concentration ranges of metals (in mg/kg of dry sediment) measured were in order of Fe (154.00 – 226.1) > Cu (59.64 – 70.20) > Zn (50.98 -66.40) > Mn (39.22 – 57.85) > Pb (5.40 – 22.11)> Cd (3.67 – 16.13). Significant correlation exist at (p<0.01) level and (p<0.05) level between some soil properties and the studies metals. Significant correlation also exist at (p<0.01) and (p0.05) level between the studied metals. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Mn and Cd exceed sediment guideline limit while those of Zn and Pb were below guideline limit.


Chapter One


Introduction

Sediment is the loose sand, silt and other soil particlesthat settle at the bottom of the body of water (USEPA, 2002). It can come from soil erosion or from decomposition of plants and animals. Wind, water andice help to carry these particles to rivers, lakes andstreams.Sediments near urban areas commonly contain high levels of contaminants (Lambersonet al., 1992; Cook and Wells1996) which constitute a majorenvironmental problem faced by many anthropogenically impacted aquatic environments (Magalhaeset al., 2007).Sediments in rivers do not only play important roles atinfluencing the pollution, they also record the history oftheir pollution. Sediments act as both carrier and sourcesof contaminants in aquatic environment (Shuhaimi,2008).Contamination of sediments with heavy metals may lead to serious environmental problem(Loizidouet al., 1992). Heavy metals may adsorb ontosediments or be accumulated by the benthic organisms;their bioavailability and toxicity depend upon the variousforms and amount bound to the sediment matrices(Chukwujinduet al., 2007). Additionally, pollutantsreleased to surface water from industrial and municipaldischarges, atmospheric deposition and run off fromagricultural, urban and mining areas can accumulate toharmful levels in sediments (Chukwujinduet al., 2007)

Heavy metals are classified as metallic elements that have relatively high atomic weight. They are natural components of the earth crust and they cannot be degraded or destroyed (Lentech, 2011). They have specific gravity greater than 4.0 that is, at least 5 times that of water.Heavy metals exist in water, in colloidal, particulate anddissolved forms (Adepoju-Bello et al., 2009).Their occurrence in water bodies are either of natural origin eroded,minerals within sediments, leaching of ore deposits and volcanism-extruded products or of anthropogenic origin(solid waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents, harbour channel dredging) (Marcovecchioet al., 2007).However, heavy metals are either essential or non- essential. Although heavy metalssuch as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenon and zinc are needed at low levels as catalyst for enzyme activities (Adepoju-Bello et al., 2009),Excess exposure tothese essential metals can however, be toxic.Water has unique chemical properties due to its polarity and hydrogen bond which makes it able to dissolve, absorb, adsorb or suspend many different compounds (WHO, 2007). Thus, in nature, water is not pure as it acquires contaminants from its surrounding and those arising from humans and animals as well as other biological activities (Mendie, 2005).

Heavy metals can cause serious health effects with varied symptoms depending on the nature and quantity of the metal ingested (Adepoju-Bello and Alabi, 2005). The most common heavy metals that humans are exposed to are aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. Aluminium has been associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, senility and presenile dementia. Arsenic exposure can cause among other illnesses or symptoms, cancer, abdominal pain and skin lesions. Cadmium exposure produces kidney damage and hypertension. Lead is a cumulative poison and a possible human carcinogen (Bakare-Odunola, 2005). For mercury, toxicity results in mental disturbance and impairment of speech, hearing, vision and movement (Hammer and Hammer, 2004). In addition, lead and mercury may cause the development of autoimmunity in which a person’s immune system attacks its own cells. This can lead to joint diseases and ailment of the kidneys and circulatory system and neurons. At higher concentrations, lead and mercury can cause irreversible brain damage.

In view of growing concern over the use of Ikpoba River by resident along the river banks for drinking,cooking, cultivation of horticultural crops and fishing, this study was undertaken specifically to ascertain the concentrations of Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) in sediment of Ikpoba River in Benin city.


Assessment Of Some Heavy Metals In Sediment


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Assessment Of Some Heavy Metals In Sediment

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Assessment Of Some Heavy Metals In Sediment” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Assessment Of Some Heavy Metals In Sediment” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.