Assessment Of Gang Size Output On Construction Sites

Project and Seminar Material for Quantity Surveying QS

Assessment Of Gang Size Output On Construction Sites


Abstract


The aim of this research work is to determine the optimum gang size of concrete work for effective use in Nigerian construction industry. The scope of the research work revolves around public and private buildings on construction sites within Kaduna state. Data sourced from literature, questionnaire and site data collection sheet were employed in attempt to realize the aim and objectives of the study. The quantitative data set used for this study was collected personally from the ten construction sites sampled except on a very few restricted and special sites where minimal assistance was obtained. The data collection system used for the study was a combination of questionnaire, site observation and record, and field surveys. Data collected from questionnaire were interpreted and analyzed with the aid of some statistical tools which include mean, percentage, tables and regression analysis. The research depicted that the suitable number of labourer required to carry out concrete work is ranging between 3, and 4workers with an average output of 0.65m3//lab/hr to 1.05m3/hr in both manual and machine operation. In addition, the research also shown that labourers or operatives preferred incentive scheme and good salary/wage as their motivating factors. From the result of the analysis, incentive scheme shows to be the best factor influencing productivity as such a well structured bonus and incentive scheme should be put in consideration so as to achieve output required.


Chapter One


Introduction

The construction industry is that sector of national economy that is responsible for the development of both structures and infrastructures. It embraces “a wide range of loosely integrated organizations that collectively construct, alter and repair a wide range of different range of building and civil engineering structures” (Seeley, 1984).

Smith and Katzenback (1987) define work team (gang size) as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” Although work team effectiveness is complex a subject, optimum work teams have some common characteristics. Such characteristics include relatively small size, dedication standards, willingness to be collectively accountable, equitable and effective work and role assignment procedures within the team, and complementary skills. Optimum work teams also require compensation approaches that reward teamwork, such as gain sharing or team bonuses.

Abiola (2004); Define productivity as a measure of how efficient and effective the resources, labour, capital, material, energy, water, information technology, etc. are used to produce the goods and services needed by the society.

According to Longman dictionary, output can be defined as “the amount of goods or work produced by a person, machine, and factory.”

Management is getting results through workers’ output, as such, became the essential requirement in accomplishing the desired result. If a manager has more work to do than he can carry out personally, he gets it done by others (especially the hard labour).Productivity improvement is concerned with raising output and reducing costs and therefore the profitability of the construction industry. In many organizations improved utilization of man power assets is the key to the significance of short and long term productivity improvements. Improving productivity is part of the job of every line manager because of the direct link between productivity and profitability.

Increasing use of people (increasing output and reducing cost) can only be achieved by optimum gang size, supervision and management. It is the responsibility of the top management to formulate company or industry policies for human errors in bid to improve managerial productivity, (Osoba, 1983,etal). In the pursuit of human errors reduction for productivity improvements there are certain factors to be considered because their influence can be readily modified and they include:

  1. Inadequate workspace or poor work layout
  2. Poor environmental design.
  3. Inadequate method of material/equipment handling
  4. Inadequate job planning information and
  5. Poor supervision.

Ayagba and Ayandele (1999), stated that the total output of Nigerian construction workers is low. They identified various factors as having an influence on the total output of construction workers, citing Bain (1982) and Thomas (1991), who suggested the following factors.

  1. Skills of the workforce
  2. Work practices
  3. Length of workday
  4. Time frame of the work process working conditions (lighting, cooling, heating and noise etc.)

Aim and Objectives

Aim

The aim of this research work is to determine the optimum gang size of concrete work for effective use in construction site.

Objectives

The aim of the research work is meant to be achieved through the following objectives

  1. To Identify and examine the required number of workers to carry out a specific trade (concrete)
  2. Identify and examine the time required to execute the concrete work
  3. To Identify the most influencing factor(s) in achieving workers output.
  4. To record and analyze the period of time with which workers spent in the process of execution of a concrete work on site.

Statement of the Problem

Generally, construction industry is in dilemma with regard to the suitable number of people required to execute a specific trade. This is needed for the purpose of computing rates, so as to enable professionals (Quantity surveyors) in practice to prepare accurate Bill of Quantities, among others.


Scope and Limitation

Scope

The scope of this research study revolves around public and private buildings on construction sites within Kaduna state.

Limitation

This study is limited to concrete work, data collection was limited to construction sites within and around zaria, and also the following limitations are detected after the conduct of the research.

  1. The research is limited to specify the distance between the position of mixing and placement
  2. It is Limited to distinguish whether the work is in substructure or superstructure.
  3. There is no separation in output and time spent, between mixing, transportation and placement of concrete in the operation
  4. The research did not to consider the labourers job overtime.
  5. The study did not consider the level of influences of difference in age group and experience on the worker’s output (ie Hawthrone effect).

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The aim of the study is to determine optimum gang size of concrete work for effective use in Nigerian construction industry with the view of improving the accuracy in cost estimate. From the result of the analysis, the research depict that the suitable gang size that produce best output of 1.05m3/hr is labourer working with 3number of laboureres as a gang, using manual operation, while a labourer is capable of producing 0.94m3/hr of concrete using manual operation.

The research also shown that labourers or operatives preferred incentive scheme and good salary/wage as their motivating factors. Responses from questionnaire reveals that, the suitable number of labourer required to carried out concrete work is ranging between 3, and 4workers with an average output of 0.65m3//lab/hr to 1.05m3 /lab/hr in both manual and machine operation.

Therefore, the optimum gang size, despite all the limitation of the research was found to be a gang of 3number of labourer with an average output of 1.05m3/hr in manual operation, while 4number of operatives with an output of 0.94m3/hr will be suitable working in machine operation.

It is to note that the result obtained for machine operation appears unrealistic compared to manual operation, this was as a result of placing the concrete mixers at a far distance away from the position of placement/casting of the concrete.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. In the technical level effective supervision should be carried out to ensure that non of the labourers should be idle or waste too much time during break or other needs.
  2. From the result of the analysis, incentive scheme shows to be the best factor influencing productivity as such a well structured bonus and incentive scheme should be put in to consideration so as to achieve output required
  3. Supervisors should ensure that mix ratio is strictly followed so as to obtain needed quality.
  4. Further research should be carried out to measure the output of mixing, transporting and placing of concrete separately.
  5. Consideration should be given to those workers output in overtime.

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