Assessment Of Entrepreneurship Education On Self-Employability Among Business Education Graduate

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Assessment Of Entrepreneurship Education On Self-Employability Among Business Education Graduate


Abstract


The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of entrepreneurship education on self-employability among business education graduates of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Three specific objectives were to determine the influence of an entrepreneurship education on the ability of business education graduates of Ahmadu Bello University to establish a new business, among others. To achieve these objectives three research questions were formulated from the objective to guide the researcher, one among others was, what is the influence of an entrepreneurship education on the ability of business education graduates of Ahmadu Bello University to establish new business? A descriptive survey design was used and the population of the study were sixty-six(66) students graduated from business education Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in the year 2013. A purposive sampling technique of twenty-nine (29) students was used as the sample size of the study. The instrument for data collection was basically questionnaire which was validated by the experts. A pilot study of thirty(30) students from Federal College of Education Zaria was conducted to determine the reliability of the instrument and coefficient correlation of 0.80 was obtained. The administration of sixty-six (66) copies of the questionnaire to the respondents was done by the researcher through the means of google mailing (Gmail) and they were filled and sent back the responses. A descriptive statistics of frequency distribution of percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions of the study. Chi-square(X2) was used to test the null hypotheses which revealed among others, entrepreneurship education significantly influenced the ability of business education graduates of Ahmadu Bello University to establish new businesses. The researcher concluded that entrepreneurial knowledge and skills if it’s not adequately taught and acquired by business education graduates would not enable them to establish, manage and sustain new businesses. The researcher recommended among others, that graduates should use the knowledge and skills of entrepreneurship acquired to establish, manage and sustain their own businesses, since they had been taught and trained all the necessary knowledge and skills in various vocation and occupation that will make them to be “job makers” not “job seekers”.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Business education is a course that prepares for entry into an advancement in jobs within business and it is equally important because its prepare students to handle their own business affairs and to function intelligently as consumers and citizens in a business economy. It is an educational program that equips an individual with functional and suitable skills, knowledge, attitude and value that would enable him/her operate in the environment he/she finds himself/herself. It is therefore, to note that the major objectives of business education are to provide employment. Business education graduates are men or women who have complete business education program in the university. The first task is to teach and participate in business in order to educate others and to sustain themselves. Business education is form of training which helps to achieve all the aims of education at any level of learning. Business education include education for office occupation, distribution and marketing occupation, teaching business subjects, business administration and economics understanding.
According Adamu (2008), business education is that education which assists student to develop positive attitude, innovation, and skills for reliance, rather than depending on the government for employment. This will produce graduates with self-confidence and capacity for independent through discovering new information leading to economic development.

Emaraton and Obundike (2008) in Agu (2006) opined that business education is the type of education designed to change the orientation and attitude of the recipients and in the process will equip them with skills and knowledge to enable start and manage business enterprise. Unemployment especially among the Youth has become a global challenge. There appears has become no country in the world that is not affected directly or indirectly by the challenges of unemployment. The peaceful and prosperous nation suffers from illegal migration and terrorisms from nation that is plagued by high level of unemployment rates and terrorism. Education has always been canvassed as one of the most visible ways out of poverty but this assertion is becoming invalid with the increasing number of unemployed university graduates. It is now obvious that except citizenry is exposed to the right education, unemployment would remain unabated.

Entrepreneurship is considered to be a key factor in promoting economic development, innovation, competitiveness, wealth and value creation. Entrepreneurship is the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out an investment opportunity in an environment and able to establish, manage and sustain a business enterprise successfully based on the identified opportunities so as to meet the ever changing needs of the society.

Entrepreneurship education is an education that plays a very vital role in addressing the challenges posted by unemployment in the country(Nigeria). In order to make Nigerian graduates more resourceful and self-reliance, Federal Ministry of Education introduced entrepreneurship education into curricula of the universities, polytechnics, and colleges of

education through the regulatory and supervisory agencies- National Universities Commission (NUC), National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). This becomes expedient in order to offer a realistic approach to solving the endemic problem of unemployment facing the nation. Thus, entrepreneurship education is developing since being made a compulsory course for all students in three hundred level of tertiary education students irrespective of student’s area of specialization.
However, in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU, Zaria), precisely in business education section has made an entrepreneurship education a core course that is not strictly at only three level (300 level) only, rather they were three courses of entrepreneurship education to be offered including the one offering at three hundred level before graduating. These entrepreneurship education courses are:

  1. Introduction to Entrepreneurship Education (GENS 202) 200 level.
  2. Entrepreneurship in Business Education (VTEB 210) 200 level.
  3. Entrepreneurship Education in Business Creation and Growth (GENS 301) 300 level.

The above mentioned courses enable the students to acquire a broad set of knowledge and competencies that can produce a greater social and awareness with the natural and artificial resources for them to be self-reliance. According to Raposo and Paco (2011), entrepreneurship education prepares the youth to be responsible and enterprising. In similar vein, UNESCO (2008), viewed educational entrepreneurship as well as kind of experiences that give student the ability and vision of how to access and transform opportunities of different kinds.

In essence, educational entrepreneurship provides a platform for youth to transform opportunities to business ventures and to manage those ventures to become a medium for job creation for themselves and others. Enu (2012) argues that the ultimate goal of educational entrepreneurship is all about increasing the students’ ability to anticipate and respond to societal changes. In other words, through educational entrepreneurship, students were equipped to deploy their creativity of the larger society. They are also empires to take initiatives, responsibilities and risks.

Entrepreneurship skills or entrepreneurial skills are those activities that will enable an entrepreneur to establish, manage, and sustain his own enterprise. The entrepreneurship skills are those skills, knowledge, attitude, and behavior that will enable an entrepreneur to identify business opportunities, stimulates creativity, and transform an idea into practical economic activities for suitable development of livelihood. These skills are business planning skills, business management skills and innovation creativity in order to run an enterprise successfully which will lead to wealth and value creation.

  • Business planning skills: This is an activity which involves decision about aims and objectives, means conducts or policies and result by the entrepreneur in any business enterprise. It is the activity that takes place against the background of the organizational strengths and weaknesses within and outsides the business environment.
  • Business management skills: This is the ability of an entrepreneur to set and achieve an objective through planning, organizing, and controlling the available resources in order to be effective and efficient within the business environment.
  • Innovation and creativity: These are the unique qualities and elements of an entrepreneur which been able to think for an entire new ways and identify opportunities that make connections between seemingly unrelated events or situation, often come up with solution or new idea which is the synthesis of other items. They will repurpose products to market them to new industries.
  • Self-employability: This is the combination of the ability to establish, manage, and sustain a new business in order self-reliance. Employability has in recent times remained the focus of government, employers, job seekers, and educators. Brown and Hesketh (2004), explained employability is the relative chances of getting and maintaining different kinds of employment. For individual’s employability depends on the knowledge, skills, and ability (KSA) they possess, the way they present those assets to employment and context (e.g. personal circumstances and labor market environment) within which they employed.

A major concern of graduates is what constitutes employability skills. According to Kazilan, Hamzah and Bakar (2009), employability skills which synonymous with entrepreneurial skills refers to a group of important skills instilled in each individual to become a productive workforce. According Pollard as cited in Imeokparia and Endiagbonya (2012), employability refers to a person’s capability for gaining and maintaining employment. Employability skills or entrepreneurial skills are the skills needed by an employee or employer of labor. Specially, entrepreneurial skills are very important for success in self-employment.


1.2 Statement to the Problem

Graduates who have knowledge of an entrepreneurship education and skills can be able to establish, manage, and sustain a new business in order to be self-employed and boost the economic growth. Experience over the years has revealed that seventy percent (70%) these graduates end of roaming about the streets as a result of lack of job opportunities. The employment rate of the country (Nigeria) keeps escalating as each year comes as a result of continuous injection of graduates who have no jobs to do at the end of the day. This situation has become so pathetic because of job seekers/applicants and of going back to their aged parents who have invested in them, hoping that someday they will get back the dividend of their investments but all to no avail. This cankerworm (unemployment) which has eaten deep into the fabric of the society must be reversed to avoid national crisis. The unfortunate was attributed to under development and a value orientation which relies on government for job opportunities. Magaji (2010) attributed this problem to the inadequacies of our educational system which produces “job seekers” instead of “job makers”. Therefore, this study will empirically investigate the “assessment of entrepreneurship education on self-employability Among business education graduates of Ahmadu Bello university, Zaria”.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to assess the influence of Entrepreneurship Education on the Self- Employability Among Business Education Graduates Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

The specific objectives are:

  1. To assess the influence of an Entrepreneurship Education on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to establish a new business.
  2. To assess the influence of an Entrepreneurship Education on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to manage a new business.
  3. To assess the influence of an Entrepreneurship Education on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to sustain a new business.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the influence of an Entrepreneurship Education on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to establish a new business?
  2. What is the influence of an Entrepreneurship Education on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to manage a new business?
  3. What is the influence of an Entrepreneurship Education on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to sustain a new business?

1.5 Hypotheses

  • Ho1: Entrepreneurship Education has no significant influence on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to establish a new business.
  • Ho2: Entrepreneurship Education has no significant influence on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to manage a new business.
  • Ho3: Entrepreneurship Education has no significant influence on the ability of Ahmadu Bello University Business Education Graduates to sustain a new business.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research “Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employability Among Business Education Graduates of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria” will be of great importance to the entire society, government, those studying business education programmed as well as those intending to study the programmed.

The main important of this study to the society as the business will be based on sustainable development of immediate environment and consumer satisfaction. This in turn create job to the society, increase wealth, and values as well as improve the wellbeing of that society.

In respect of government, this will be a great important in the sense that may serves as sources of income or revenue through payments of taxes, means of supply to the business organization which in turns curtail unemployment problems and reduces the burden of reliance on government job and also raises the standard of living and gross national product thereby leading to vibrant economy.

Finally, to those undergoing business education programmed (graduates), it will help them to be self-employed thereby encouraging them to start up their own enterprise not waiting for a white collar job, because they had been trained for various profession that enable them choose suitable vocation or occupation.


1.7 Basic Assumption of the Study

The assumption of this study “Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education on Self- Employability Among Business Education Graduates of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria” are as follows:

  1. The knowledge and skills acquired by the business educator will make an impact for self- employability after graduation.
  2. The knowledge and skills acquired from entrepreneurship education will provide the competencies of establishing new business by the graduates of business education.
  3. It is also enhancing the ability of graduates of business education in managing business enterprise through the accurate skills and knowledge acquired.
  4. It helps to develop the ability of sustaining new business environment and self-reliance.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

This study “Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employability Among Business Education Graduates of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria” is only delimited to graduates of 2013 of business education, in business education section, department of vocational and technical education, faculty of education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

1. Entrepreneur:

A person could be able to initiate or create a new business in order to bear the risk of his/her establishment.

2. Graduates:

A student that have graduated from business education of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria in the year 2013.

3. Self-Employability:

Ability to establish, manage and sustain a new business.


1.10: Abbreviations.

1. KSA:

Knowledge Skills and Abilities.

2. UNESCO:

United Nations of Educational Scientifics and Cultural Organization.

3. NUC:

National Universities Commission.

4. NBTE:

National Board for Technical Education

5. NCCE:

National Commission for Colleges of Education.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter contained the summary, conclusion and recommendations under the following sub-headings

  • 5.1: summary.
  • 5.2: conclusion.
  • 5.3: recommendations.

5.1 Summary

This study was an attempt to investigates an “Assessment of an Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employability Among Business Education Graduates of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria”. Chapter one of the study attempts to give the background of the study and the problems associated with the study, three objectives of the study, three research questions, and three null hypotheses were formulated from the research questions and also significance of the study were well stated. While chapter two drowned on the three related literature of the study. Chapter three lists the method and sources of data collection, procedure, instruments for data collection, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques and finally the technique of analyzing data. Chapter four the data were presented and analyzed using the responses of the respondents, and also major findings were discussed.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings, the researcher data concludes that an entrepreneurial knowledge and skills if it is not adequately taught and understood by the graduates of business education

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria would not enable them to establish, manage, and sustain new businesses effectively.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion, the following recommendations were made in respect of graduates, university, society and government as follows:

  1. It was recommended that graduates should use their knowledge and skills acquired to establish manage and sustain their own businesses since they had been taught and trained all the necessary knowledge and skills in various vocation or occupation that will make them to be “job makers” not “job seekers”.
  2. It was further recommended that universities should use their best knowledge and skills and also upgrade their facilities of teaching and learning of entrepreneurship education which will make the students to learn appropriate knowledge and skills that will make them self-reliance not only waiting for a white collar job after graduation.
  3. It was also recommended that the entire society should invest their own share of contribution to the development of entrepreneurship by making societal entrepreneurship skills acquisition centers for sustainable development of immediate environment and consumer satisfaction.
  4. Federal, state and local government also should encourage graduates who have knowledge and skills of entrepreneurship by given them soft loans and infrastructures in order to be self- reliance which in turns curtail all economy crisis resulting by unemployment such as arm robbing, kidnapping among others and which will reduce the burden of reliance on government job and also improve standard of living and Growth National Product thereby leading to a vibrant economy in the country (Nigeria).

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