Assessment Of Employment Requirements In The Banking Sector And Its Impact On Unemployment In Nigeria
The study was carried out to assess employment requirements in the banking sector and its impact on unemployment in Nigeria. Descriptive design was adopted for the study, and also four research questions and two null hypotheses were posited. The population of Bank executives and employers in Commercial banks stood at 2,960 and 4,040, respectively. Proportionate sampling techniques were used in selecting the samples of 148 Bank executives and 202 employees. Questionnaire was used to collect data.
The views of Graduates and Bank executives did not differ on the job requirements required by the graduate, the performance of Graduates was significantly dependent on the impact of Information Technology, the performance of job requirements in the banking sector was significantly dependent on the competencies acquired by Graduates.
Performance of Graduates depended on the correction of lapses in the curriculum. It concluded that for Graduates to cope with the trend of Information Technology, the curriculum of Schools needed to be re- visited to embrace what is required in the banking sector.
1.1. Background of the Study
For decades, rapid changes have taken place in all facets of human life, including the work scene. This is a result of technological progress. Any office in today’s business world, whether governmental or private, needs facts and accurate information to make decisions quickly. The clerk, including the employee, expects some support from the organization in which he is employed. This support can be technological (machinery and equipment) and human. In previous offices, managers dictated memos and letters, and staff wrote them. Lately, companies have developed text processing centers, relying on personal computers and even email to reduce the need for secretarial support and make the employee very productive (Ezoem, 1995, Osuala, 2004).
As a result of changes in technology, ICT work requirements have changed significantly from the typewriter and abbreviated dictation, telephone calls and e-mail processing. Today’s employees are familiar with office technologies, such as the Internet, that facilitate work and make knowledge more accessible (Edwin, 2008). Now it is easier to send messages through telex, email, fax and telephone. Other office equipment available to the employee are photocopiers, copiers, dictation machines, printers and others. This is the era of computing and information technology that has led to greater comfort. Three of the most popular types of computer software programs are word processors that help users write and edit memos, charts and reports, data management programs or databases that help them use long lists of data and spreadsheets that handle tables and numbers (Dulek and Fielden, 1999).
Today’s employees have many technologically advanced office equipment to facilitate their work and improve performance and productivity, leading to better access to goods and services around the world (Wofersohn, 2001). There is a wide selection of machines and office equipment that help employees improve their performance. These new machines take the form of electronic typewriters that have replaced the manual ones. Now employers provide word processing equipment with various equipment, computers and other sophisticated machines and office equipment. Among the physical devices used by employees are computer communication devices and electronic pocket organizers (Lucas, 1997). Among the new technological devices that have changed the procedures and techniques of office are computers, email / commerce, voice mail and Internet.
However, these new developments require more knowledge and skills than just graduating, which leads to job losses and unemployment. So that the employee is up to date with the changing times, be able to face the challenges and overcome the old ways that recently needed to achieve the objectives of the organization. Information technology has influenced many occupations lately. The role of the professionals of the secretariat was reversed by technology. It has provided the tools that determine the role of employees in the function of information recording devices in business strategists (Appah and
Emeh, 2011). Several other authors are of the view that the employee has to be well equipped to meet the present challenges of a modern office.
The ministry of Education is one of the key ministries responsible for skills advancement in Nigeria. The overall goal of the Ministry is to provide relevant and quality education for all Nigerians especially the disadvantaged to enable them acquire skills which will make them functionally literate and productive to facilitate poverty alleviation and promote the rapid socio-economic growth of the country.
The banking sector is one of the major employer of labour in the private sector, and the technological advancement in the world is experienced by this sector and employees in this sector need to be we qualified for the task available in this sector. In Nigeria, skilled labor force is low compared to unskilled, this results in unemployment increase by this sector as the labor available is not adequate for the task.
In order to achieve its broad objectives the ministry has employed a significant number of employees to perform clerical works. This study seeks asses employment requirements of the banking sector and its impact on unemployment in Nigeria
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
An automated office, undoubtedly, offers new roles and responsibilities for the employee. Such new roles presuppose that additional training and qualifications are required from the employees. The relevance of automation in the banking sector was identified by Aromolaran (2003) as follows
- Create a different career path for the employee.
- Automation creates a prominent place for the employee in the organizational chart.
- Create routines and assigned roles for the employee.
- With automation, employees now spend less time revising, revising, reviewing, and reproducing documents.
Cameron (1982) has long ago noticed that between the introduction of new equipment in the market and the installation in small organizations 10 to 15 years pass. This is especially true for private business organizations in developing countries. At the present time, it is not uncommon for employees to still use manual typewriters in some organizations. However, the banking sector in particular has made progress, and the use of modern equipment is gaining ground.
Duniya (2011) also noted that with the introduction of sophisticated technological (electronic) office equipment in today’s office and the role that employees must play in ensuring accuracy and efficiency in their jobs, employees have to face the challenges of acquiring new ones Skills and competences for efficient work in the electronic office. There is a constant technological progress that has influenced the secretarial profession in terms of the quality, speed and accuracy of the work performed.
The private sector mostly needs qualified staff to do better work in the company.
1.3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study
- Investigate the job requirements for graduates in the banking sector in Lagos.
- Examine the competencies required by Graduates in performing job requirements in the banking sector in Lagos.
- Investigate how the lapses in the current curriculum used in the preparation of Graduates affect their employability in the banking sector in Lagos.
- Examine the effect that job requirements in the banking sector have on unemployment in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the job requirements for graduates in the banking sector in Lagos?
- What are the competencies required by Graduates in performing job requirements in the banking sector in Lagos?
- How does the lapses in the current curriculum used in the preparation of Graduates affect their employability in the banking sector in Lagos?
- What is the effect that job requirements in the banking sector have on unemployment in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses:
- There is no significant difference between the modern job requirements performed by graduates and the traditional tasks
- There is no significant impact of job requirement in the banking sector and unemployment.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Geographically, the study covers the banking sector in Nigeria. Contextually, the study focuses on modern office technologies and their impact on employees and employment.
1.7 Significance of the Study
So far, only a few studies have been published analyzing modern office technologies and employee productivity in African countries and especially in Nigeria. This study should contribute to a better understanding of the topic.
From a professional perspective, the results of the study will provide a benchmark to assess the effectiveness of implementing new office technologies in an office environment and to define key productivity factors.
Finally, this study will provide a basis for future research, as this will motivate many researchers to further explore other aspects of the topic.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one of the dissertation deals with the general description of the study, the definition of the problem, the research question, the objectives of the research and the importance of the study.
Chapter 2 presents all the relevant bibliographical research on waste management and related concepts.
Chapter 3 deals with the identification of the most appropriate research methodology for this research, and
Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the data of the lessons learned in this field.
Finally, Chapter Five summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Based on the findings of the study, it is hereby concluded that Graduate in the banking sector required computer based knowledge job-tasks and also competencies related to computer because almost all of the tasks performed by Graduates in the banking sector were computerized. These job-tasks and competencies were not reflected in the present curriculum of School. Since this is the case, the graduates would find it difficult to cope in modern business offices because they have not learnt the required skill. This will slow the pace of the work carried out by graduates in modern business office since the traditional job-tasks with which they are trained is slow, it will affect the graduate graduates in terms of employment opportunity. It was also concluded based on the major findings that the impact of Information Technology was significant on the performance of Graduates. If Information Technology had a significant impact on the performance of Graduates then something needed to be done to enlighten the Graduates on Information Technology like coaching them practically. For if their performance is affected technologically it will lead to low grades which will affect the students psychologically and emotionally and this would further affects their generation and leads to poor perception of the course.
It was concluded that the performance of School graduates depended on the correction of the lapses in the curriculum of School. If this correction was not effected it will lead to poor performance of Graduates, Poor performance of Graduates would render them incompetent in the the banking sector and as a result of this, the image of Business Education, which School is an integral part, will be tarnished which will lead to poor enrolment into Business Education, and School will be affected.
- There is the need for institutions such as Colleges of Education and Universities to train Graduates with computer based word processing knowledge in order to make them relevant in the the banking sector.
- There is the need for School Teachers to acquired new Technologies in that they can be able to teach Secretarial Students using relevant equipment.
- There is the need for Federal and States Ministries of Education to provide facilities for Information and Communication Technology in Institutions of learning so that Graduates can be trained and equipped to face the challenges of the banking sector. This implementation can be done through the help of National Bodies of Business Education and through Alumni of every institution and also through Agencies and volunteers.
- There is the need for curriculum planners at the NCE and Degree levels to correct the lapses in the curriculum by acquiring the new Office Technology Management (OTM) Curriculum and Course Specifications so that the missing gap between the curriculum and the job-tasks in the banking sector would be bridged. This can be done through the help of the Federal Government by providing necessary equipment and funds needed and also through seminars and workshop to be conducted by the curriculum planners. Also they need to liaise with other institutions offering secretarial courses to check the lapses in their own curriculum and make necessary adjustment. The inculcation can be done through National University Commission and through National Commission for Colleges of Education.
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