An Assessment Of The Effects Of Touting In Delta State (A Case Study Of Uvwie LGA)
The research is posed to examine The Effects Of Touting In Delta State with a particular reference to Uvwie LGA. The researcher shall comprise five chapters, arrange in an ascending order. Chapter one shall start by way of introduction which serve as the preamble of the research work. It shall also comprise of background of the study statement of the problem. Objectives of the study significance of the study, research questions scope and limitations of terms. In chapter two effort shall be made to look into the literature review of the research work. It shall also proceed in digging deep into the causes of touting, bad leadership illiteracy which offense constitutes to a large extent the cause of touting poverty and the reaction and response of Nigeria government towards touting activities. Chapter three shall concentrate mainly on research methodology and design of the study as well as the method applied in the collecting of data. Chapter four focus mainly on data presentation and analysis including discussion of findings. finally, chapter five which shall deal mainly on summary, conclusion and recommendations.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitation of the study
- 1.8 Definition of terms
- 1.9 Organizations of the study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical review
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Sample size determination
- 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.7 Method of data collection
- 3.8 Method of data analysis
- 3.9 Validity of the study
- 3.10 Reliability of the study
- 3.11 Ethical consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Discussion of findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
High rate of unemployment, poverty and uncontrollable informal sector among others have led to more than proportionate increase in deviant careers, violence and criminal activities, loss of lives and properties in most urban centres. As submitted by Fayeye (2007), poor economic growth coupled with high rate of corruption and mismanagement are some of the fundamental factors accounting for high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. This unemployment rate as further argued by Fayeye (2007) encouraged early morning gathering of unemployed youths around major urban roads, street and junctions discussing football and headings of newspaper to waste away their time. Salawu, (2009) maintained that the pull created by unemployment has pushed many individuals into forming gangs usually referred to as touts, whose activities revolve round the streets, bus stops, market, motor parks and especially, the transport corridors. These touts hang around motor parks and most times claimed they are working for government especially the local government authorities. Realistically, most of these tout work for their Godfathers, Union Chairman and Garrison politicians (Lana, 2011).
Touts can be defined as workers at railway stations, airports, ferry points, and especially motor parks, who undertake the self-imposed responsibility of recruiting and organizing passengers who wish to travel by road and for this work they received a fee or more appropriately a ‘commission’ that is gradually paid by the drivers of the vehicles just before their departure (Okpara, 2005; 1998). Ikumola (2011) submitted that most of the touts are private entrepreneurs, who both compete and collaborate with one another to provide road transport for the public which most times generate unhealthy rivalry.
Obviously, these self-appointed passenger procurers are not public employees, although all the motor parks in which they operate are built and owned by the appropriate local government authorities. As opined by Lana (2011) most touts do not consider collection of Dues/ticket only economically viable, thus they help drivers/commercial car owners to get the necessary passengers, in order to boost their income per day.
Usually, as identified by (Momoh 2000 ; Ikumola, 2011) activities of touts are characterized by incessant fights over loading rights in the street, bus stops, motor parks (transportation corridors) and business districts. Similarly, the malevolent character of touts, relative groups and the destructive goals of their members, as revealed by the atrocity in the urban areas are noted for destruction of public peace. These atrocities are not only increasing in proportion but are lethally more devastating and sophisticated in organization. Reports of dastardly acts such as looting, killing, raping, acid bathing, thugery, exhortation, property destruction and stealing have become more rampant among touts in the metropolis. Till date, available police statistics report as revealed in the Nigerian (Tribune, August, 12, 2012) shows that there is a strong association between these so called touts and violence associated with criminal activities and lawful disorderliness in most urban cities.
The demand for transportation is inevitably higher per unit of time in the urban centres of any regional communications network than anywhere else. Land use planners’ creation for transport at certain nodes by designating relevant space as motor parks (Oni, 2007) which are supposed to constitute the official station of departure and arrival for most journeys, undertaker or by non-car owing residents of the community. Hence, for those living outside urban centres where such parks are located, these act by the touts caused them to be panic and make them to be vulnerable to miscreant activities.
Thus, the motor parks constitute the major operational bases for touts and can be used to evaluate the relative importance of certain towns and villages as transportation nodes. Since there seems to be a direct relationship between urbanization and enhanced demand for travel on the one hand, and the incidence of touting on the other, (Okpara, 2007), it is hardly surprising that the latter is not a traditional enterprise. In other words, the unique brokerage services offered to both willing and unwilling passengers have evolved in response to fairly recent urban and related transport development (Mensah, 2008).
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Earlier research on touting extensively focused on mode of operation see (Okpara, 2005: Lana, 2011) other focused on attitude and activities of touts along traffic corridors (Ikuomola et al, 2011; Iginla, 2007). Many other scholars review the relevance of theory of planned behaviour in explaining the development of touts (Agnew, 1992). Many other scholars examined how different cultural groups such as Oodua people’s congress, Agaba boys and Egbesi boys have metamorphosed into area boys and nuisance in major metropolis mostly in the public places See (Ikoh, 2010: Ekpenyong, 1999: Oloko, 2007). A look at this research will show that several lacunas exist in the study of touting as urban menaces. While many researchers focus extensively on some of the activities of touts, little or no study has examined socio-economic background of these boys (Touts). Also many studies were silent on the formulation of touts in most urban areas especially along traffic corridors. Although, in Uvwie LGA several journalistic report have been written on members of NUTRW in Uvwie LGA who are generally believed to be touts, but there is still a need to appraise the prevalence of touts especially in urban motor parks which is a major public places in Uvwie LGA.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In this study of research work, it is pertinent to know that Touting brings reproach and shame to a nation. It was for this reason that the following objectives are stated below:
- To examine the cause of Touting in Uvwie LGA
- To identify the dangers of Touting
- To examine the reactions of the government on the issue of Touting
- To examine the socio-economic and the political implication of Touting in Uvwie local government areas
- To proffer recommendations based on the findings.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of this research study, the following research questions are raised.
- How does Touting affect the peace and unity of the local government areas under study?
- Does Touting affect the socio-economic and political development of local government area under study?
- What are the causes and effect of Touting in Uvwie local government area?
- Have the government does enough in the area of combating Touting in the local government areas under study?
- Why do youths involved themselves in the act of Touting?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study cannot be over emphasized or under estimated since it is aimed at looking into the effect of Touting.
It is also intended to help eradicate totally or reduce to the barest minimum, the necessary rate of crime by providing means to free the youths from this pressing problems, since it is the youths that are the masters minder of Touting.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study as a matter of fact refers to areas of coverage of this research study.This study is centred on the effect of Touting on good governance in Nigeria with Uvwie local government areas in Delta State. This study discourage youths involved in Touting.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
A lot of difficulties were encountered in the course of carrying out this research work. These difficulties include finance, low level of education of respondents constraints, difficulties in getting materials which may be highly confidential etc.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In order to ease the comprehension of the study, it is pertinent to define some basic terminologies that are connected with Touting. These terminologies that will ease the understanding of the topic of discussion are;
Politics is the noun form of ‘’political’’ political is an adjective of politics. The word politics is not narrowed won to only one definition. Many scholars share different view on the definition of politics. Some definitions of politics are;
- Politics according to Harhold Laswell can be defined as who get what, when and how.
- Abraham Kaplan defines politics as the sharing and shaking of power
- David Eastern on his own viewed politics as the authoritative allocation of values in the society.
- Karl Max defines it as the inter class struggle for the redistribution of social and economic goods, values and services
- Broadly, therefore, politics can be defined as the struggle to acquire power necessary for policy making authoritative allocation and redistribution of resources and values of the society.
Touting refers to violent, usually criminal behavior and is carried out in a federation, state or local government by some group of people known as touts.
1.9 Organization of Study
This research project is divided into five chapters.
- Chapter one is the introduction of the work that is followed by the area covered; background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research questions, scope/limitations of the study, definition of key concepts.
- Chapter two; is the literature review, and includes; literature review, overview of Touting, causes of Touting, bad leadership, unemployment, illiteracy, lack of parental control, lack of political sensitization, effect of Touting, destruction of human lives, retardation of socio-economic development, Touting causes inter party wrangling, political party serves as threat to her society, the reaction of government towards Touting activities.
- Chapter three is the research methodology and includes research design, area of study, population of the study, sample of the study, description of instrument, administration and retrieval of instruments, administration of research questionnaires and method of data analysis.
- Chapter four is the data presentation and analysis and includes data presentation, analysis of data, testing of hypothesis, discussion of findings.
- Chapter five is summary, conclusions and recommendations. This is closely followed.
5.0 Summary Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter is mainly concerned with summary of the entire write up. Recommendations were provided at the end based on findings.
This project work is an attempt to discuss An Assignment Of The Effects Of Touting In Delta State: a Case Study Of Uvwie LGA.
Attention was focused on the introduction. The introduction helps to show the various reasons that triggered the under taking of this project work or research. In this case also it highlights the over view of the study, causes and effects of touting and government perception about touting activities in Uvwie LGA and state as a whole. In chapter three, attention was focused on research methodology. This described the methods used to gather information data collected were analyzed and discussed as related to touting in the local government area under study.
Summary of entire work was made, conclusion drawn and recommendations made.
This study shows that touting adversely affects the socio-economic development of the two local government areas under study. This is very true as it affects the common among the people. It leads to the destruction of lives and properties, it retard the development of the people socially and economically. It affects the developmental plan of the government and also damages the image of the local government and the state. touting is caused by factors such as illiteracy, lack of parental control, unemployment, poverty and other factors. The effect of touting is endemic if not pandemic. This evil among us have given the country international bad names. touting must be stopped. It must be seen as disease with a cure, that means all hands must be on deck. Salisu (2010) all hands must be on deck to totally eradicate this act of touting in Nigeria.
The following recommendations are necessary as they touch on the solutions to both the causes and effects of touting.
- Employment should be provided by the government and non-government organization (NGOs) to youths especially at the local level of government. Employment should be base don merit and party affiliations. Merit and spread should be given a pride of place. Therefore, winner takes all syndrome should be jettison.
- The government at all level should work to retrieve arms from the youths and other carrying them for violence or touting.
- The government should compensate those whose properties are lost during touting activities and also to parents who lost their love ones to touting attack. This will help calm down the evil intention to retaliate via the act of touting by those affected.
- Effective enlightenment strategies should be developed by government at all levels and youth agencies so that the youths should become aware of opportunities available at their disposal to implore their current social and economic status.
- The battle against corruption and mismanagement of public funds, which causes poverty must be won regardless of what it takes. In this regard, the activities of Economic And Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) should be intensified and much be supported by all.
- Also the National Assembly, State House of Assembly and the legislative councils of the local government should come up with legislation that will carry stiff penalty on touting activities in Nigeria so as to discourage the youths who see it as a means of livelihood and the politicians who use them to pursue their interest.
- The government should provide free education for the teeming population of the country. This will help in a great length to provide education for the youths and to make their heart jettison the activities of touting.
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