Assessment On The Effects Of Poor Environmental Sanitation In Our Environment

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Assessment On The Effects Of Poor Environmental Sanitation In Our Environment


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effects of poor environmental sanitation in our environment using Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State, find out the level of residents knowledge of proper environmental sanitation practices, ascertain the practices contributing the situation of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State, determine the whether poor environmental sanitation contributes to the spread of communicable diseases, and determine the whether poor environmental sanitation contributes to infant and child mortality. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised residents of Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is high prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State. The study also revealed that poor environmental sanitation practices has a negative effect on public health. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should enforce existing environmental sanitation regulations in order to sanction house owners without basic environmental sanitation facilities. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

All over the world, poor environmental quality is increasingly recognized as a major threat to social and economic development and even to human survival. (Acheampong, 2010; UNICEF, 2007; UNICEF, 2006 WHO, 2005). The impacts of environmental deterioration are severe on developing countries thus hindering and undermining their development (Bello, 2007; Mmon, 2003). The living environment is well polluted owing to social misdemeanor of indiscriminate littering, improper domestic wastewater discharge, and poor sewage disposal. These behaviours promote unsanitary living conditions which result in the breeding of communicable diseases (Adimekwe, 2013; WHO and UNICEF 2008; IRC, 2006).

Poor environmental sanitation practices exhibited in the disposal of solid waste, wastewater and excreta, cleaning of drainage including personal, household and community hygiene significantly contribute to infant and child mortality (Mmon and Mmon, 2011; UNICEF, 2007; Amadi and Iwuala, 2005; WHO, 2005; UNICEF, 1999; EHP, 1999). This is contrary to the notion of environmental sanitation which aims at developing and maintaining a clean, safe and pleasant physical environment in all human settlements (IRC, 2006; FRN, 2005). Environmental sanitation comprises the disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and wastewater, control of disease vectors, and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene which work together to form a hygienic environment (Schertenleib et al, 2005).

Improved environmental condition affects positively a wide range of development indicators. Thus, environmental sanitation is a channel to improved quality of life of the individuals and a contributor to their social, economic and physical development (Olowoporoku, 2013). Numerous studies have shown that the incidence of many diseases is reduced when people have access to, and make regular use of adequate sanitary installations (Aremu, 2012; Mohammed 2011; Mmon and Mmon 2011; Nwankwo, 2011; Luthi, 2012; Acheampong, 2010; FMHE 2009; Harvey, 2008; WHO and UNICEF, 2008; Amadi and Iwuala, 2005; FRN, 2005; WHO, 2005; Mensah, 2002). It has been documented that about 24% of global diseases with high mortality ratio is caused by environmental exposures which can be averted (WHO, 2006). Nevertheless, most of these deaths are preventable through adequate environmental sanitation practices.

Environmental sanitation practices refer to residents’ involvement in provision, utilization, and maintenance of environmental sanitation facilities and services and adherence to environmental legislation (Daramola, 2015). In Nigeria, adequate environmental sanitation practices have not been ensured. They are characterized by lack of basic amenities and poor sanitation habits (Ademiluyi and Odugbesan 2008; Afon, 2006). General access to environmental sanitation facilities and services by citizens remains very poor (Akpabio, 2012). Nigerian cities are characterized by rapid population growth which is not accompanied by a corresponding increasein the delivery of environmental sanitation facilities and services capable of enhancing environmental sanitation practices. The resultant effects of these are unsanitary and unhealthy environmental conditions that are prevalent in Nigerian (Daramola, 2012).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Issues related to environmental sanitation practices have been explored by many researchers. For instance, there are studies on environmental sanitation as an exercise (Adejumo, 2013; Afon and Faniran 2013; Aluko and Agbola 2007; Nwachukwu 2008), health effects of environmental sanitation (Mmon and Mmon, 2011; Harvey, 2008), community participation in environmental sanitation (Ekong, 2013; Daramola, 2012; Luithi 2012; UNEP, 2005), environmental sanitation management (Acheampong, 2010) and environmental sanitation education (Anijah et al, 2013; Aremu, 2012). These studies have focused on issues pertaining to provision and deficiencies of facilities and services as well as legislation. Studies on environmental sanitation habits, and their public health implications are quantitatively unimpressive, especially in Nigeria.

Adequate environmental sanitation practices are more than just an inconvenience. It allows users knowledge and experience to the design and management of facilities and services and to increase the likelihood that the services will be used sustainably. This study seek to examine the effects of poor environmental sanitation in our environment.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of poor environmental sanitation in our environment. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. Find out prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State.
  2. Find out the level of residents knowledge of proper environmental sanitation practices.
  3. Ascertain the practices contributing the situation of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State.
  4. Determine the whether poor environmental sanitation contributes to the spread of communicable diseases.
  5. Determine the whether poor environmental sanitation contributes to infant and child mortality.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State?
  2. What is the level of residents knowledge of proper environmental sanitation practices?
  3. What are the practices contributing to the situation of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State?
    • Indiscriminate littering,
    • Improper domestic wastewater discharge,
    • Poor sewage disposal
  4. Does poor environmental sanitation contribute to the spread of communicable diseases?
  5. Does poor environmental sanitation contribute to infant and child mortality?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Poor environmental sanitation practices has no negative effect on public health.
  • Ha: Poor environmental sanitation practices has a negative effect on public health.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research work presents the necessity of keeping the University clean and effective sanitation management via the correct knowledge of attitudes and behaviour in the environment. This is accomplished through the proper knowledge of attitudes and behavior in the environment. This study is important for bringing to the attention of the general public the proper attitudes that should be held towards environmental sanitation inside the institution.

This study aims to facilitate the realization that the appropriate attitude and behaviour towards environmental sanitation can be achieved among residents, which could drive the nation as a whole into a positive environmental mindset.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the effects of poor environmental sanitation in our environment. The study will also point out the prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State, the level of residents knowledge of proper environmental sanitation practices, the practices contributing the situation of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State, etc. The respondents for this study will be cover residents in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Solid Wastes:

“Solid waste” means any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities.

Sanitation:

This is the arrangement to protect public health, provision of clean drinking water and the disposal of sewage.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms.

The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of poor environmental sanitation in our environment using Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effects of poor environmental sanitation in our environment using Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State, find out the level of residents knowledge of proper environmental sanitation practices, ascertain the practices contributing the situation of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State, determine the whether poor environmental sanitation contributes to the spread of communicable diseases, and determine the whether poor environmental sanitation contributes to infant and child mortality.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areresidents in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. There is high prevalence of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State.
  2. The level of residents knowledge of proper environmental sanitation practices is poor.
  3. The practices contributing to the situation of poor environmental sanitation in Aba North, Local Government Area of Abia State include; indiscriminate littering, improper domestic wastewater discharge, and poor sewage disposal.
  4. Poor environmental sanitation contributes to the spread of communicable diseases.
  5. Poor environmental sanitation contributes to infant and child mortality.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. The residents should provide household environmental sanitation facilities while the government and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) should provide community environmental sanitation facilities and services.
  2. The government should enforce existing environmental sanitation regulations in order to sanction house owners without basic environmental sanitation facilities.
  3. Pro-environmental sanitation practices depend on effective environmental literacy. Thus, campaign to raise public awareness about environmental sanitation is essential in achieving success in environmental issues. This mind-set reorientation can be achieved through recruitment of trained young men and women who would engage residents one on one especially in the core on the need to be environmentally concerned.

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