Assessment The Effectiveness Of Performance Appraisal Exercise In The Public Service

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Assessment The Effectiveness Of Performance Appraisal Exercise In The Public Service


Abstract


In this study, our focus was to carryout a critical analysis to assess the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service with a particular reference to Oyo State civil Service commission. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 80 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active workers in Oyo State civil Service commission.the study found out that most employees show cooperation in the appraisal process. Again, most staff believe that feedback reflects their performance. Further, most staff believe the appraisal system is relevant and do not consider the appraisal process a waste of time. It was noted that the process has helped in identifying systematic factors that are barriers to effective performance. Key challenges identified included low feedback rate and lack of adequate resources, among other challenges. The study recommended the need to ensure that fairness is maintained in the appraisal process so that the necessary trust and cooperation will be forthcoming from staff. Further, there is the need to ensure regular feedback. Failure to do this could affect staff interest in the process, as much as possible feedback should be given to staff on their performance.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background to the Study

Performance appraisal has become a strategic tool for improving organizational effectiveness. Performance appraisal exercise is often used interchangeably with performance assessment, evaluations, and performance review or employee appraisal. The significant role of performance appraisal in any establishment or organizations has become indispensable in terms of organizational success. The success of any organization is dependent on how well the performance of every employee is effectively appraised and managed. The performance appraisal is a unique and very important aspect of career development which entails a regular review of the performance of employees in the organization but doesn’t stop there but goes further to communicate feedback to the employees (Smith, 2007)

Public service in most countries, developed or developing are undergoing profound reorganization. They are trying to provide improved services in the same vein having to drastically downsize their work force in the face of major fiscal constraints emanating from the global economic meltdown. A significant reason of such restructuring in public administration is the need to reinvent governance, and enhanced services with fewer resources. One of the most popular instruments adopted for restructuring activities in civil services of most countries, today is Performance Appraisal System. This argument is in the light of the view of Wholey (1989), that strengthening government performance, improving the productivity, quality, timeliness, responsiveness and effectiveness of public services and programmes through performance appraisal is important to all, as beneficiaries of public service and as taxpayers.

Performance appraisal is a continuous process of assessing and measuring the inputs of every employee with a view to knowing their strengths and weaknesses and communicating the results back to the employees. Smith (2007) posited that performance appraisal is an activity which includes the assessment of individual or other level of performance to measure and improve performance that will help in attaining corporate objectives. Performance appraisal is a process that contributes to the effective management of individuals and teams to achieve high levels of organizational performance.(Oyewole, 2008)

Performance appraisal is a broad concept that covers quite a number of activities that is connected to evaluate employees and improve their capability, skill, abilities through training and adequate rewards. To get the best out of every employees, it becomes imperative for organizations to have a continuous activities or programmes that will help in reviewing their performance and competence and thereby effection communications among work groups in the organization

Daniels (2001) also acclaimed that Performance management is a systematic way of communicating to employees on what they are expected to do and what the performance parameters are. Managers can only satisfy employees on a job if they give employees what they deserve for their performance so far without making an attempt to exploit employees and pay them lower than expected. Performance appraisal through a good feedback mechanism as to a lager extent help employees to know how they are progressing within the public organization in carrying out their duties, tasks and responsibilities this feedback can be made available on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.

From past researches and findings, it has been observed that matching both rewards with output as a result of employee’s performance in an organization will commit employees more to the performance appraisal process and showing them that the completion of the performance targets and objectives will affect them directly. This will therefore make this research study to assess the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service with a particular reference to Oyo State civil Service commission


1.2. Statement of Problem

Quite a number of challenges have been identified as confronting the effective and efficient practice of the performance appraisal system in the Nigerian public service. Observation shows that civil servants in Nigeria are generally lazy as many of them come late to work and absent from duties with files accumulated without being treated. Yet, these civil servants score very high in the Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APER). Primordial relations underscore every aspect of performance appraisal in the Nigerian Civil Service. The merit system index in performance appraisal is supposed to be objectively practiced and be the guiding principle in appointments and promotion, and this has not been so. The objectivity in appraisal system has been compromised as a result of ethnicity, nepotism and bribery. Favoritisms in the Nigerian Civil Service are extended to ethnic bloc members, friends, relations and those generally known (Ajayi, 2001 and Ayo 1998).

Extant literature shows that performance appraisal is not properly practised in many public organizations in Nigeria, leading to pseudo reports on subordinates with grievous consequences on the system. These among other problems are what the researcher will probe into and make attempt towards finding possible solutions


1.3. Objectives of the Study

This primary objective of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service and other objectives include

  1. To examine the influence of the performance appraisal exercise on improvement of employee performance in the public service
  2. To assess the factors affecting effective performance appraisal exercise in the public service
  3. To Suggest possible recommendations that would enhance effective performance in the public service in Nigeria

1.4 Significance of the Study

Recently, the effectiveness of the Nigerian public service has become a subject of question. Therefore, this study will give an insight into the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in improving employee performance in the public sector. Efforts shall be made in this research work to reveal the various factors affecting the effectiveness of performance appraisal in the Nigerian public service and its effect on general employee performance and also, the study will suggest possible recommendations towards enhancing effective performance appraisal in the public service

This research study will beneficial to the officers public service commission, students in tertiary institutions and, the general readers, and students of various disciplines will also find the study useful as well as future researchers who may be interested in this kind of research work


1.5. Scope of the Study

This research study specifically deals an appraisal of the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service with particular reference to the civil service commission, Oyo State. The investigation of the study will be conducted within the Oyo state civil service commission office, Ibadan


1.6 Statement of Hypotheses

  1. Ho: Reward oriented performance appraisal cannot serve as a viable means of employee motivation in the public service
    Hi: Reward oriented performance appraisal can serve as a viable means of employee motivation in the public service
  2. Ho: There is no relationship between effective performance appraisal exercise and public service efficiency in Nigeria
    Hi: There is relationship between effective performance appraisal exercise and public service efficiency in Nigeria
  3. Ho: Objective Feedback on employee performance appraisal exercise cannot influence employee performance in the public service
    Hi: Objective Feedback on employee performance appraisal exercise can influence employee performance in the public service

1.7. Limitations to the Study

In the process of carrying out this study, the following problems were encountered by the researcher, this includes:

Time Factor:

The time within which this work must be completed and submitted for appraisal stood as an impediment tothis project work.

Financial Resources:

Due to lack of finance at the disposal of the researcher, affected the quality of this work, cause my sponsor(parents) prefers to spend money on my younger once admission into the University recently (2019/2020) academic session) rather than devoting huge financial resources on this study that will be of economic and academic importance in years to come.


1.8. Definition of Operational Terms

Performance

Performance is the consistent ability to produce results over prolonged period of time and in a variety of assignments. Performance is multidimensional. Its elements include effectiveness, economy, efficiency, productivity, quality and behaviour. Performance can thus be tangible or behavioural

Appraisal

This is a judgment, assessment or evaluation of the value of something especially a formal one

Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal is a continuous process of assessing and measuring the inputs of every employee with a view to knowing their strengths and weaknesses and communicating the results back to the employees.

Public Service

The public service consists of the civil service – career staff whose appointment, promotion and discipline are under the exclusive control of the Federal Civil Service Commission (FCSC), national assembly service, the Judiciary, public officers in the military, police and paramilitary services, employees of parastatals, educational and health institutions.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to carryout a critical analysis to assess the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service with a particular reference to Oyo State civil Service commission. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the effectiveness of performance appraisal exercise in the public service.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 80 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active workers in Oyo State civil Service commission.


5.2 Conclusions

The study has examined the Effectiveness of appraisal system and practice of Oyo State civil Service commission using respondents who were both junior and senior staff from the commission. Several findings were made and adequately discussed. Key among the findings was that the institution has in place an appraisal system with key performance criteria that have been developed and clearly identified. Effectively it came out that the process has helped in identifying systematic factors that are barriers to effective performance.

Competent appraisal of individual performance in an organization or company serves to improve the overall effectiveness of the entity. McGregor in Moats (1999) describes the three main functional areas of performance appraisal systems as: administrative, informative, and motivational. According to Addison-Wesley (2001), appraisals serve an administrative role by facilitating an orderly means of determining salary increases and other rewards, and by delegating authority and responsibility to the most capable individuals. Again, Moats says the informative function is fulfilled when the appraisal system supplies data to managers and appraisees about individual strengths and weaknesses.

It must also be emphasized that the uniformity of the appraisal structure is vital because it ensures that all employees are evaluated on a standardized scale. Appraisals that are not uniform are less effective because the criteria for success or failure become arbitrary and meaningless. Furthermore, uniformity allows a company to systematically compare the appraisals of different employees with each other.

The general conclusion therefore is that organisations should seriously consider methods and systems that would help them administer their appraisal process effectively so that the stated objectives will achievable and subsequently translate into the organisation’s performance.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on Findings and discussions the following are recommended:

1. The Need to Ensure that Performance Criteria is up to date

There is the need to ensure that performance criteria have been extracted from an up-to-date job description. This was identified in the case of Oyo State civil Service commission consistent with what has been suggested in the literature and need to be encouraged.

2. Need to Ensure Fairness in the Appraisal Process

The study observed although they were in the minority, some respondents doubted the fairness of the appraisal process in the university. To totally erase this impression, since it has the potential of affecting confidence in the system, there is the need to ensure that fairness is maintained in the appraisal process so that the necessary trust and cooperation will be forthcoming from staff.

3. The Need to Ensure Regular Feedback.

The study also identified feedback rate to be very low. This affects some of the objectives of instituting an appraisal system. Therefore, there is the need to ensure regular feedback. Failure to do this could affect staff interest in the process, as much as possible feedback should be given to staff on their performance.

4. The need to ensure effective supervision

Finally, one of the challenges that usually confront the implementation of an appraisal is the fact that some supervisors do not display the right attitude to help the process. Although this was not found with Oyo State civil Service commission, there is the need for supervisors to enhance the process by exhibiting the right attitude. This will go a long way to create the right enthusiasm among staff.


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