Assessment Of The Effect Of Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles On Teachers’ Job Performance In Selected Primary Schools
This study aimed at assessing the effects of Head Teachers’ Leadership Style on Teachers’ Job Performance in Selected Primary Schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. The study was based on path goal theory. The study employed the descriptive survey design. The study employed 6 head teachers and 88 primary teachers in the 6 primary schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to get 6 head teachers and 88 teachers were obtained through simple random sampling. Questionnaires, interviews and documentary reviews are the method used by for this study. The analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Quantitative data was entered into the computer for analysis using the software of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study shows that the democratic leadership style was a both dominant and that it enhanced teachers’ job performance. The researcher recommended that, school head teachers should avoid much uses of autocratic style in the leading of schools as it does not allow teachers to give off their best. Also adoption of leadership strategies by the head teachers such as participative style of leadership, creates conducive environment which would help to improve primary school teachers’ job performance. Based on the findings of the study a researcher concluded that, the proper utilization of the leadership behaviors were results to the high level of teachers’ job performance.
1.1 Background of the Study
Leadership is considered as one of the key ingredients for the success of any organization. It is therefore, important for a leader to understand what good leadership entails. According to Sergon (2005), leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader. Mirkamal, (2005) identified different styles of leadership; autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Fan (2009) reveals that achievements in schools are dependent on four identifiable leadership styles namely; autocratic, democratic, transformational and laissez-faire.
Autocratic leadership style appears generally self-centered and allows minimum participation of the subordinates in decision making, the democratic style is rather people oriented and counts on the participatory contribution of the subordinates (Mgbodile, 2004). Autocratic leadership behaviours have prevailed in Mexico and Taiwan, while in South Korea and United States, the dominant leading style is democratic. According to Dickson, Hartog and Mitchelson (2003) only democratic leadership style had a direct and significant affiliation with performance in United States. Fan (2009) identifies that transformational leadership style pays particular attention to the subordinates needs for growth and achievement and thus leaders who use this style are proactive leaders. Laissez-faire leadership styles refer to the style which allows free contributions of ideas or opinions without interference by the leader.
Secondary schools all over the world, including Nigeria, are important institutions in the achievement of the educational policy of the state. As a formal organisation, it has a bureaucratic administrative structure with established rules and regulations, aimed at providing the needed opportunities for the education and development of the learners and staff of the schools, and usually under the leadership of the principal. In their views, Ochoyi and Danladi (2009) and Wilson (2016, p. 52) described education as a vital tool in the development of the learners, through the transmission of worthwhile values such as skills, knowledge and planned activities that can develop the learners’ potentials for the benefit of the society.
Education, thus provides for the development of the citizens, and is achieved through the implementation of the necessary school curricula and education policy of the state. In Nigeria, the education policy anchors on five cardinal objectives, basically a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant nation; a great and dynamic economy; a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens FGN, (2004, p. 4). In addition, Olatunji (2015, p. 396), stated that Nigeria’s philosophy of education is a complex one that requires adequate administrative procedure to ensure its practical achievement in the state. The desirability of achieving of both the Nigerian education policy and philosophy of education requires effective leadership in all educational institutions in Nigeria, including the secondary schools. Secondary schools provide institutional resources for the secondary education level and needs effective leadership of the principal to ensure the achievement of its objectives.
Adwella (2014, p.1) saw leadership as the operational tool in influencing people to strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of the organisational goals, including secondary schools. Nworgu (1991), Omolayo (2000), and Aghenta (2001) explained leadership as a process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in an effort towards the attainment of the organisational goal. It involves the act of getting things done with the cooperation and assistance of other people. Leadership is therefore an important instrument in the initiation and implementation of the organisational policies, including educational policies and philosophy of the secondary schools in the State, and the leadership style and traits so applied by the leader influences the job performance of the staff in the organisation (Yahaya, Osman, Mohammed, Gibrilla, and Issah, 2014, p. 2).
Different leadership styles influence job satisfaction. For example, Fan (2009) studied principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job satisfaction in South Carolina and revealed that teachers preferred transformational leadership that includes them in decision making rather than be coerced into compliance by their principals. However apparent contradictions arose when teachers spoke highly of leaders characterized as having democratic leadership styles as well as some having authoritative leadership styles. Iqbal (2010) on the impact of principals’ job satisfaction of teachers the province of Punjab, Pakistan established that democratic leadership style was dominant over autocratic style. 18 per cent of school principals fall in autocratic leadership style and 82 per cent fall in democratic leadership style. The study further revealed that teachers working under a democratic style of leadership were more satisfied than teachers working under autocratic style of leadership.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Some head teachers’ seem to be autocratic in their leadership style (Adeyemi, 2010). Some perhaps tends to be democratic (Akerele, 2007). Some on the other hand seem to practice the laissez faire leadership style (Ige, 2001). These leadership styles tend to have some effect on the management of the school either positively of negatively.
Other studies have been on head teachers’ leadership styles with respect to performance in KCSE examination for example Iqbal (2010). Muchina (2009) studied the effects of head teachers’ leadership styles on motivation of secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Common observations in the school system shows that teachers in primary schools have been moving away from the teaching profession to other professions and others have had early retirement (Fan, 2009). Many reasons might have been responsible for this development. Among these reasons may be the perceived low level of teachers’ welfare and the conditions of service which seems not to be comparable with the conditions of service of their colleagues in the civil service.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the assessment of the effect of Head teachers’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in selected primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
The specific objectives of this study include the following:
- To find out the type of leadership style adopted by primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To determine the influence of head teachers’ democratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To establish the influence of head teachers’ autocratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To examine the influence of head teachers’ laissez- faire leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To assess the influence of head teachers’ transformational leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
- To find the impact of head teachers’ leadership style on the rate of teachers’ turn over in primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
1.4 Research Questions
The relevant research questions related to this study include the following:
- What is the type of leadership style adopted by primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
- What is the influence of head teachers’ democratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
- What is the influence of head teachers’ autocratic leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
- What is the influence of head teachers’ laissez- faire leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
- What is the influence of head teachers’ transformational leadership style on primary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Ado-Odo Ota LGA?
1.5 Significance of the Study
A number of benefits are expected from this study. First, the findings of this study would help to improve head teachers and teachers working relationships as well as improving the teaching performance. Second, the study would provide information and insights useful not only to policy makers and practicing educational administrators, but also to teachers and other stakeholders in the Tanzanian educational settings. Third, the study would contribute to new knowledge and the availability of literature on educational management, leadership and administration. Fourth, the study findings would also contribute to the pool of knowledge on teachers’ job performance. Also it is vital for the present and future scholars in regard to an assessment of head teachers’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance. Lastly the study would also be a conditioning for the fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a master’s degree in Educational administration planning and policy studies of the Open University of Tanzania.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study was conducted in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. It could have been a good idea to conduct the study to cover all the LGAs in Ogun state. However, due to lack of funds, the study focused only Ado-Odo Ota LGA . Thus the study was focused on leadership styles only as the factor that influence teachers’ job performance through the area of communication, decision makes and delegation of duties between head teachers and teachers in the school setting.
1.7 Limitations and Delimitation of the Study
Even though the research has attained its objectives, there were some unpreventable limitations. First, while there are various models of leadership style, due to the limit of time, finance and material resources; this research was not incorporating all models to see teacher’ job performance. The investigation was run by focusing on the three leadership styles and teachers performance. Styles, which are prepared based on House (1968) path goal theory of leadership. In addition because of the limits mentioned above, this research was conducted on government primary school in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. Therefore, it was difficult to generalize the result for both government and private schools. Furthermore, the lack of similar research works on the issue investigated in the study area impedes the researcher from consulting more findings in the literature as well as in the discussion part. Despite of all those limitations, the researcher managed to collect relevant data from the study by educating them the purpose of the study as it was for academic purpose only.
1.8 Definitions of the Key Terms and Concepts Assessment
In this study a researcher define a term assessment as the systematic basis for making inferences about the leadership style and teachers’ job performance. It involves the use of empirical data on teachers’ job performance to refine the leadership style and hence improve teachers’ job performance.
This study defined leadership as the ability to influence the behavior of others to acts in a group with common interests to acquire the effective teachers’ job performance.
The study define Leadership style as the behavior orientation of headteachers in which headteachers influence teachers on their working performance.
Teachers’ Job Performance
From this study, teachers’ job performance refers to the assessment of the performance of teachers basing on his/ her instructional competence, quality, attendance, professional and personal characteristics. The teacher job performance also considered as the act of scheming, lesson planning, and assessment of students through giving tests, exercises and participation in extra-curricular activities of the schools.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter presents a summary of the study, the key findings of the study, conclusion drawn from the findings highlighted, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
5.2 Summary of the Study Findings
The findings were based to provide the current head teachers’ leadership style on the improvement of teachers’ job performance. Therefore the investigation was done through the following research objectives. To examine the effects of leadership behaviors on teachers’ job performance, to identify the most dominant leadership style exhibited among head teachers, and to identify the leadership style used by head teachers that enhances teachers’ job performance. Thus based on above objectives, the following are the major findings from this study of an assessing the effects of leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in selected primary schools of Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
Firstly the study indicated that, proper supervision of the delegated duties makes teachers committed, hardworking, effective and efficient in their work. Interviews conducted with head teachers revealed that teachers make records of work for lessons taught and not taught. They insist that, for contents coverage purposes and check up of teachers whether they have been teaching or not. This has helped head teachers to supervise completion of syllabus from both who were performed and non performed teachers. The non performed teachers are then directed, guided and motivated to perform well by re-arranging makeup classes for curriculum coverage. For proper performance of the subordinates and goal achievement, the leader has to distribute different tasks to subordinates according to skills, abilities, knowledge, interests, talents and experience.
Furthermore, the study finding indicated that, head teachers’ proper delegation of duties makes teachers to inculcate a sense of responsibility, hard working and commitment among themselves which in turn enhances teacher performance. The findings discovered that if teachers are guided on how to perform the delegated duties, they become efficient and effective in performing what has been given to them. It was identified that for the delegated task to be done well, the supervisor and the subordinate must agree on when the job is to be finished. It can be noticed from this information that head teachers in selected primary schools in the study area have the element of democratic because they practice proper supervision of subordinates, which is an element of democratic style. The supervision of the delegated duties makes teachers committed, hardworking, effective and efficient in their work. The study accomplished by showing that, the way head teachers’ involve teachers in decision-making has a significant effect on teacher performance in primary schools in study area.
The findings revealed that head teachers’ involvement of teachers in decision making has an effect on teacher performance in primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota LGA. This means that most of the head teachers in the study area practice democratic leadership style, where they are first consult teachers before passing up the final resolutions in meetings. This enhances teachers to perform to the best of their abilities hence achieving the goals to the maximum. The democratic style of leadership emphasizes group and leader participation in the making of policies. Decisions about organizational matters were arrived after consultation and communication with various people in the organization. The leader attempts as much as possible to make each individual feel that he is an important member of the organization.
On the other hand the finding revealed that head teachers’ communication with teaching staff makes teachers to perform well because they are informed about what to do and how to do. This was concluded that proper communication to teaching staff by head teachers’ is a characteristic of a democratic leadership style and if well practiced continuously and at all levels could yield to high teacher performance. This is because teachers were informed in time to do what is expected of them. Thus a researcher shows that, the leaders should attempts as much as possible to make each individual feel that he is an important member of the organization. Communication is multidirectional while ideas are exchanged between employees and the leader.
The finding also indicated that the better performance depends on head teachers who reward their teachers in terms of monetary, promotion, and verbal appreciation for any duty delegated. Such rewards motivate teachers, make them committed and hard working thereby enhancing their performance. The finding revealed that the better performance depends on proper delegation of duties basing on teachers’ knowledge enhances their performance and makes the work simpler. The leaders should provides both high directive (structure) and high supportive in setting high expectations for work improvement and rewards subordinates when the expectations are met. Hence, safe to conclude that Proper direction by head teachers to teachers is a characteristic of democratic leadership style and if this is done continuously teachers’ job performance were enhanced.
The finding reveals that, the major leadership style dominantly used was democratic but there are some head teachers who practiced autocratic leadership style as showed by 38.63%. it is due to the teachers who did not want to do their given school tasks as what they were required. Therefore, force had to be used to such teachers in order to ensure a well performance. The findings also reveal that, to a lesser extent, some head teachers were found out practicing laissez-faire style as indicated by 17.05 % of the respondents. This was because, some head teachers in the study area give freedom to their teachers to perform their duties with minimum interference.
The finding reveal that, the majority of respondents selected the Democratic leadership style of about 62 (70.46%) as enhancing teachers to perform their duties followed by Autocratic leadership style 24(27.27%) and the least that enhancing teachers was Laissez-faire leadership style of 2(2.27%). Therefore, the overall picture drawn by the researcher is that, a greater majority of staff selected for this research perceived that the Democratic leadership style enhanced teachers to perform their duties well. This was so because some primary school teachers in Ado-Odo Ota LGA are familiar, capable committed and interested in performing school tasks with very little guidance and directives given to them by their head teachers. The findings indicating a moderate level of teachers’ job performance in the schools shows that teachers have not been performing to expectation in the selected primary schools of Ado-Odo Ota LGA.
Based on these findings a researcher shows that, teacher who had the opportunity to develop their skills were more satisfied than those who had not the opportunities to do so. Thus democratic leadership style is the one which promotes high teachers’ job performance among teachers in primary schools. These findings were further shows that, head teachers’ democratic leadership skills significantly related to highly teachers’ job performance since democratic leadership in school reduces teachers isolation, use bureaucratic mechanism to support cultural changes, share leadership skills with others by delegating power and actively communicating the school norms and beliefs.
Therefore the results implies that the more the head teachers practiced democratic leadership the more teachers were likely to report high job performance. In other words, democratic leadership style is the type of leadership that enhances high teachers’ job performance in primary schools.
The study’s findings also revealed that most of the teachers felt that the greater the experience the less need to use the autocratic style of leadership and the greater the use of democratic style of leadership. They felt that the head teachers needed to involve them in the decision making process as they also possess some leadership experience. Many of the teachers who had taught for more than 10 years detested the use of strict methods of leadership. The way the teachers perceived and appreciated the head teachers’ leadership styles varied on the basis of the number of service. From the analysis the study revealed that majority of the school head teachers had not attended education leadership course. It is important to note that head teachers were well trained as teachers, but not as school leaders. It was established that the nature of the head teachers’ training contributed to either poor or good leadership. Indeed in many African countries, Tanzania included head teachers are not formally trained for leadership roles. Majority of them had been deputy head teachers before, so they might have acquired some leadership skills in case they might had served under knowledgeable head teachers. The training given to head teachers when training as teachers is inadequate to prepare them for leadership roles. Schools today are faced with many challenges that emphasize the demand for effective leadership.
The study also revealed that majority of head teachers often allowed their group members to know what is expected of them. a significant number of head teachers allowed the teachers a high degree of initiative and creativity in their work, Majority of them also tried their own ideas and gave advance notice of changes, they delegate tasks and gave members fair chance to handle delegated work. Most of head teachers also showed great concern with the interest/welfare of the teachers while making decisions and they allowed the teachers to go about their work the way they wanted.
Majority of the head teachers often decided what shall be done and how it shall be done, they often allowed the group to set its own pace and scheduled the work to be done. Head teachers normally delegate some of their responsibilities to their assistants. This study established that head teachers who use the laissez faire leadership style tend to fail to follow up on those they have delegated tasks. They leave everything to the mercy of their subordinates, some of whom may lack the necessary skills and competence to execute the work. Others may simply not like to do the work unless they are supervised. Laissez-faire leadership is not the best leadership style to use in the school’s organization because complete delegation without follow-up mechanisms may create truancy and performance problems, which are likely to affect the school’s effectiveness.
Democratic leadership is associated with leaders showing confidence and trust in their subordinate staff. The study also revealed that head teachers remained accommodative of other teachers’ opinions. They also encouraged interpersonal relationship, urged the group to beat its past target, were willing to make changes and at the same time organized workshops and seminars for their staff. The study further established that majority of respondents often considered the ideas/suggestions of teachers while making a decision. They let some group members to have authority that they should keep, the study also further revealed that minority of the respondents rarely permitted their members to use their own judgments. They rarely acted without consulting the group. Head teachers were of perception that their staff teachers were not satisfied with their teaching jobs.
The study further established that most of the head teachers made teachers’ work easier and more pleasant; teachers were comfortable working in their current school of deployment. Majority of the teachers were satisfied with the school administration and the teaching job which gave them a feeling of success and prestige. Further the study established that majority of school head teachers understood and recognized good teaching practice. It was also revealed that teachers enjoyed no incentive for their work and that timely promotion enhanced interest in teaching. The study also revealed that teachers considered themselves to be an important organ in the school administration system, and that the feeling of going to school, gave teachers an immense pleasure.
The study found that there were existed various channels of communication in most of the schools. Most head teachers promoted a sense of belonging among the teachers in the school and that teachers are involved in the planning process in the school. This study also established that there is a strong relationship between democratic leadership style of head teachers and teacher’s job performance. This is where head teacher’s leadership is seen as a collective form of leadership in which the teacher develops expertise by working collaboratively. One of the dimensions of head teacher’s leadership is that, it focuses upon participative leadership where all teachers feel part of the change process and have a sense of ownership. So they work together with colleagues to shape school improvement efforts and thus positively influence job performance of the teachers involved.
Based on the findings of the study the following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, the study found that, delegating duties, effective decision making and interactive communication have the strong effects on teachers’ job performance. The study showed that the better performance in selected primary schools were due to well motivated teachers by their head teachers. The study concluded that; the way head teachers’ involve teachers in decision-making have a significant effect on teachers’ job performance in primary schools of Ado-Odo Ota LGA. This indicates that head teachers’ involve teachers in decision-making through staff and departmental meetings as well as teachers’ views in meeting to be valued and implemented in final decision of the schools. This has greatly enhanced teachers’ job performance in the study area. Regarding to communication, the findings revealed that effective communication between the head teachers and teaching staff makes teachers effective in their job performance because they were informed on what to be done and how to be done.
The findings also concluded that the way head teachers communicate with teaching staff has a significant effect on teachers’ job performance in the selected primary schools of Ado-Odo Ota LGA. On other side, the researcher concluded that head teachers’ delegation of duties to teachers has a significant effect on teachers’ job performance in the primary schools of study areas. This implies that head teachers’
delegation of duties to teachers according to their teaching experience, skills, commitment and knowledge of subject specialization has enhanced performance of teachers in the primary schools
Secondly, the leadership styles that were dominantly used by the headteachers from selected area of the study were democratic and autocratic styles. A researcher observed that, even though some schools employed autocratic style, it were due to the low commitments of their teachers toward their job.
Thirdly, the findings of this study is therefore conclude that democratic leadership style is a best leadership style that could enhance high teachers, job performance in primary schools. This was due to the above explanations of the leadership behaviors. However, autocratic leadership style of school head teachers was found to have a negatively influence on primary school teachers’ job performance. Furthermore, head teachers’ democratic leadership style positively influence primary school teachers’ job performance. Head teachers’ laissez faire leadership style moderately influences primary school teachers’ levels of job performance while democratic leadership style positively influences primary school teachers’ job performance.
5.4 Recommendations of the Study
Based on the above conclusions, the following recommendations were forwarded by researcher to improve the head teacher leadership styles which are associated with teachers’ job performance in selected primary schools of Ado-Odo Ota LGA. Based on the implications of the findings, the following recommendations were made:
- The head teachers of primary schools in particular can be encouraged to use democratic leadership style in the leading of primary schools since most of head teachers would improve job performance of their teachers by becoming more collaborative and democratic.
- School head teachers should avoid much use of autocratic leadership style in the leading of primary schools. School head teachers should avoid the use of autocratic style of leadership in the leading of schools as it does not allow teachers to give off their best. Need for school leaders to share their vision with other stakeholders in the school as this improve primary teachers’ levels of job performance. They should be able to communicate the vision to the staff of what their schools should become.
- Educational authorities based on district education offices were supposed to develop strategies to deal with those teachers who experience less job performance in order to reduce ineffective among teachers.
- Regional and district education office are advised to provide communication skill trainings for school head teachers on the effects of communication and on how to communicate with teaching staffs to enhance their performance.
- Regional and district education office should recognize the major duties and criteria of delegating them to teachers providing further training, refresher course, seminar and workshop to both head teachers and teachers so as to be well equipped with new skills and knowledge needed to perform the delegated school tasks.
- Adoption of leadership strategies by the schools’ heads such as participative style of leadership that creates conducive environment which will help in improving primary school teachers’ levels of job performance,
- While one can delegate duties, one cannot delegate responsibilities. One remains accountable. It is therefore recommended that school leaders, avoid the laissez-faire leadership style which permits total delegation of responsibility to teachers. The school heads should know that they are accountable for every action and thus the need to monitor school progress and performance.
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