An Assessment Of The Effect Of Family Structure And Motivation As Predictors Of Student Academic Achievement
This study focused on the effects of family structure and motivation as a prediction of students’ academic achievements of university of agriculture Makurdi. Benue state. It was a survey research design with four research questions guiding the study. The instrument used in data collection is questionnaire and it was validated by the supervisor and three (3) experts in the department of science education. Using random sampling 368 students were drawn from three colleges in the University of Agriculture Makurdi.
Data analysis was done using the mean and standard deviation. The form of hypothesis formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there is a significant difference between the academic achievement of students from single parent family and those from two parent family structure. The result also indicated significant difference in academic achievement from positive motivated family and negative motivated family. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that workshop, seminar and counselling can be employed to enable the student at academic excellence.
1.1 Background of the Study
In time past, investigations of the factors/effects that influence motivation on academic achievement of students have attracted and concern of teachers, counselors psychologist, researchers and school administrators in Nigeria.
The academic achievements of students at all levels in Nigeria have attracted much criticism from all and sundry from time immemorial. The decline in the academic achievement of students in Nigeria universities had been observed by Bamidele (2014). She identified that the system need restructuring. Bamidele went further to say that the government must put genuine effort into empowering and monitoring the system to improve the standard of student’s academic achievement.
The academic achievement of students has been of great concern of educationalists and guidance and counselors in particular. This is because of the public outlines concerning the low standard of education in the country. The declining quality of education in the country and graduates with little technical know-how has resulted in serious setbacks to the individual development of the nation. Different factors are capable of influencing that academic achievement of university students, such factor maybe the student’s internal state (intelligence, state of health, motivation, anxiety, etc.) and their environment (availability of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well equipped laboratories). Investigation of these factor has produced several findings by researchers.
The family structure in this context refers to the way a household or family setup. It is different for every family as families may have single parents or two parents or may even have step parents involved. The family structure (single parent or two parent) lays the psychological, moral, spiritual and motivational foundations in the overall development of the child. The mother’s significant role in this cannot be over emphasized.
The family, being a powerful influence on the child and its importance as primary agent of socialization could in doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the child depending on the social climate in the family. Variance in psycho social emotional fortification in the family structure could be indicator to high or low academic performance of student. Research on this aspect has not been exhaustively looked into in Nigeria where this family system exist bearing in mind the intervening effect of high and low socio economic status and emotional stability of students which is a prerequisite to academic achievement (Adesehinwa, 2013) Thus parenthood is a responsibility of the full cooperation of both parents who must ensure the total development of their offspring.
There is an awareness of the importance of the home environment or family motivation and structure on student’s academic achievement. The family has a great impact on the students psychological, emotional, and social and economics state. In the view of Ajilate and Olutala (2006), the state of home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life. This is because the family background and context of a child affect his reaction to life situations and his level of performance.
Although the school is responsible for the experiences at home tremendous role in building the personality of the child and making the child what he hate. Although the home environment or family has been recognized as having a lot of influence on the academic achievement of students structurally family is either single parent or two parent, single parent family in the context is one that is not structurally intact for various reasons, death of a parent, divorce, separation, desertion and illegitimacy, in which the family was never completed. It’s against this background that this study was conceived to investigate the effect of family structure and motivation to academic achievement of students in university of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Adebule, 2007).
Academic success depends on a variety of factor and can have both a positive and/or negative influence on child’s ability to stay motivated and succeed in school. For students living in high poverty, urban environments, there are increased challenges when it comes to succeeding in school (Murray and Malingren, 2005). The current investigation is an effort to better understand the relationship between students from positive motivated family and those from negatively motivated family and the effect it has on the academic achievement of students in university of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue state.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine family structure and motivation as of academic achievement of students in university of Agriculture makurdi, Benue state.
Specifically, the study intent to:
- Find out the academic achievement of students from a positive motivated family.
- Investigate academic achievement of students from a negative motivated family.
- Determine academic achievement of students from a single parent family structure.
- Determine academic achievement of students from a two parent family’s structure in University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guide the study:
- What is the academic achievement of students from positive motivated families in University of Agriculture Makurdi?
- What is the academic achievement of students from negative motivated Families University of Agriculture Makurdi?
- What is the academic achievement of students from a single parent family structure in University of Agriculture Makurdi?
- What is the academic achievement of students from two parent family structure in University of Agriculture Makurdi?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
H01: There is no significance difference between the academic achievements of students from positive motivated families in university of Agriculture Makurdi.
H02: There is no significance difference between the academic achievements of students from negative motivated families in university of Agriculture Makurdi.
H03: There is no significance difference between the academic achievements of students from a single parent family structure in university of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue state.
H04: There is no significance difference between the academic achievements of students from a two parent family structure in university of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in a number of ways. The findings of the studies are great relevance to parents, student’s policy makers, curriculum designers and researchers. Through this study, students would come understand their role as students and take decisive steps towards overcoming their parent’s negative influence while utilizing the positive ones in enhancing their academic achievement. It is also hopeful that the study will serve as a source of information for the government to organize and address the obstacles hindering effective academic achievement of students and again to employ more school counselors in institution of learning, to provide guidance service to students, especially students from single parent family structure.
This study will also help the policy makers to formulate policies that will be of assistance and psychological support for students from single parent family and negatively motivated families, so as to overcome their emotional problems. The study will equally help parents to understand the implication consequences of parental motivation, separation and this mobilize all resources to curtail the problems arising from the situation. This could serve as a source of motivation to students. It is the opinion of the researcher that, the findings of this study would provide valuable information, which will help the general public to improve the academic achievement of single parent students in universities. The recommendations that could emerged from the findings could be apply in solving societal problems.
1.7 Scope of Study
The study focus on single and two parent students in the university of Agriculture Makurdi; The context scope of the study involves students from 100-400 level of college of Agriculture and science Education, college of Management science and college of science in the university of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue state.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following keyboards have been defined as used in this study by the research.
i. Education Achievement:
Is the level quality of attainment shown by an individual after a given learning task. (Coetzec, 2011).
ii. Intact Family:
Is a two parents family, husband and wife being together. It’s also refer to families in which both biological parents are present in the home (Nyarka, 2010).
iii. Single Parenthood:
Is a phenomenon where by the care and training of a child is undertaken by only one of the father or mother as a result of death of spouse, divorce, separation and never married (Kaush and Own, 2009).
Is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. It gives the reasons for people’s actions, desires and needs. Motivation can also be defined.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of the effect of family structure and motivation as predictors of student academic achievement, University of Agriculture Makurdi as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the assessment of the effect of family structure and motivation as predictors of student academic achievement, University of Agriculture Makurdi as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the the academic achievement of students from a positive motivated family; investigating academic achievement of students from a negative motivated family; determining the academic achievement of students from a single parent family structure and determining academic achievement of students from a two parent family’s structure in University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State..
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of University of Agriculture Makurdi.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
Educated parents would have increased emphasize on educational excellence. They are equipped by virtue of their education to take cognizance of the fact that parent-student-school community relationship is important in order to promote educational attainment and academic achievement of their children. Parents who had a high level of education such as university degree had their children perform above average as compared to the pupils whose parents had no education.
Educated parents give their children adequate time in doing their homework, assist them do homework, provide room for study, encourage and reward them to work hard.
Parents with higher levels of education often visited the schools to check the academic performance of students. This study concluded that the parents‟ level of education affected the pupils‟ academic performance.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;
- The study recommends that social and economic policies should be put in place by the government to enable children from parents of low economic status to have equal opportunity of advancing the cause of their education. The government should organize practical programs to help families start small scale businesses and also pupils to get food, money and learning resources. The government should fund small scale businesses through loans with subsidized interest rates. Programs such as school fees bursaries and school milk should be well funded by government, NGO‟s and other foreign donors.
- It was further recommended that Educational attainment could be improved through farming now that most of the parents in the area practiced farming. As such there is need to encourage better farming techniques. Loans should also be made available to farmers and businessmen at affordable interest rates.
- Since parents‟ education influences pupil‟s academic achievements, the government and all stakeholders in education sector should implement its policies on basic education for all and thus create and enlighten society in which every parent would be educated beyond primary and secondary school in order to have a positive influence on their children‟s education.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How do parents’ academic expectations affect students’ academic achievement?
Student perception of parental academic expectations was the most important predictor for differences in achievement. Students who believed their parents had high academic expectations tended to have higher grades regardless of family structure.
How do parents’ beliefs and attitudes affect the academic success of children?
They also tended to experience more stresses at school, which had negative effects on achievement. The study shows that the beliefs and attitudes of parents foster the academic success of their children.
What are the determinants of school success?
The predictors used were demographic characteristics (family structures, participation in free/reduced lunch program, minority status, mother’s education, after-school supervision, and grade levels), parental academic expectation, family learning environment, and daily stresses.
Does self-efficacy predict student achievement?
Self-beliefs are the best predictors of individual-level student achievement. The effect of self-efficacy belief is stronger than that of SES at the individual-level. SES was the strongest, positive predictor of country-level student achievement.