An Assessment Of Digitalization On Broadcasting Media (A Study Of NTA Lagos)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

An Assessment Of Digitalization On Broadcasting Media (A Study Of NTA Lagos)


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the impact of digitization on broadcasting media using NTA Lagos as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the extent at which ICT has been adopted in broadcasting operations of NTA Lagos; ascertain the benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria; and ascertain the problems associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of NTA Lagos. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is high adoption of ICT in broadcasting operations of NTA Lagos. The study also revealed that there are various benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria, which includes; digital access to information, simplified means of operations, minimized time and distance barriers, facilitates satellite broadcasting, and enhances news production and output. Therefore, it is recommended that the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) and other relevant agencies should ensure that all stations that still use analogue transmission migrate to digital broadcasting to keep Nigeria away from becoming a dumpsite for obsolete technologies. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Unlike many other inventions throughout history, the history of the television credits many inventors instead of just one. In this case, there were many inventors working on the idea of watching pictures on the screen. The earliest proposal was in 1908, in a paper by A.A Campbell-Swinton which postulated the use of Cathode rays. The First Practical demonstrations of television, however, were developed using electromechanical methods to scan, transmit, and reproduce image. As electronic camera and display tubes were perfected, electromechanical television gave way to all-electronic systems in nearly all applications.

The beginnings of mechanical television can be traced back to the discovery of the photoconductivity of the element selenium by Willoughby by Smith in 1873, the invention of a scanning disk by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1884 and John Logie Baird’s demonstration of televised moving Images in 1926. (Wikipedia, 2010). A 23 year old German University student, Paul Nipkow proposed and patented the first electromechanical television system in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, variations of Nipkow’s spinning – disk “image rasterizer” for television became exceedingly common, and remained in use until 1939. Constantin Perskyi coined the word television in a paper read to the International Electricity Congress at the international world fair in Paris on August 25, 1900. Perskyi’s paper reviewed the existing electromechanical technologies, mentioning the work of Nipkow and others. However, it was not until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology, by Lee Deforest and Arthur Kom among others, made the design practical. The first demonstration of the instantaneous transmission of still Sillhoutte images was by Georges Rigrioux and as a Fournier in Paris in 1909, using a rotating mirror – drum as the scanner and a matrix of 64 selenium cells as the receiver. In 1911, Boris Rosing and his student Vladimir Zworykin created a television system that used a mechanical mirror – drum scanner to transmit, in Zworykin’s words, “very crude images” over wires to the “Braun Tube” (Cathode ray tube or “CRT”) in the receiver. Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner, “the sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy”. On March 25, 1925, Scottish Inventor John Logie Baird gave the first public demonstration of televised silhouette images in motion, at Selfridge’s Department store in London. AT & T’s bell Telephone laboratories transmitted halftone still images of transparencies in May 1925. On June 13 of that year, Charles Frances Jenkins transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion, over a distance of five miles from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington, using a lensed disk scanner with a 48-line resolution.
However, if Television is defined as the live transmission of moving images with continuous tonal variation, Baird first achieved this privately on October 2, 1925. But strictly speaking Baird had not yet achieved moving images on October 2. His scanner worked at only five images, per second, below the threshold required to give the illusion of motion usually defined as at least 12 images per second. By January, he had improved the scan rate to 12.5 images per second. Television Broadcasting in Nigeria started with the initiative of the first Western Region premier Chief Obafemi Awolowo who on October 31, 1959 launched television broadcasting at Ibadan the head quarters of the region. The Western Region went into partnership with the Overseas Rediffusion Limited. The Western Nigerian Radiovision services limited were created with the responsibility of radio and television broadcasting under one management.

Nigeria as the giant of Africa has to her credit, the first television outfit in Africa, the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) on NTA Ibadan. The emergence of what is known today as Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) was borne out of the sheer desire to cater for the crying needs of variegated audience in terms of News gathering, packaging and transmission; this became the second oldest station after (WNTV) resuming transmission on 1st October, 1960. The Degree No 24 of 1977 caused all existing television stations in the country to be taken over by the federal government and then led to a change of name to Nigerian Television Authority (NTA). However, television broadcasting in Nigeria since inception has been transmitting through analogue television which use complete waves to transmit pictures and sounds. The major drawback of this is that location plays an integral factor, disabling, distorting images and audio on Television in rural areas (Kombol: 2008, P. 13).

Over the years, television transmission had grown from strength to strength. It moved from monochrome (black and white) to colour transmission and today we talk of Digitization.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) a United Nations Organization body responsible for co-ordinating the use of Telecommunication among nations in its 17th plenipotentiary conference in Turkey, ratified a treaty engendering the digitization of broadcast in every member state before 2015. In consonance with the above Treaty and with the intent to beat this deadline, the national Broadcasting Commission which is Nigeria’s broadcast regulatory body gave an ultimatum to Nigeria broadcast firms to digitalize its operations before 17 June 2012 or stand licence revocation. Three years ahead of the global deadline, the date was however shifted because it is seen all over that the broadcasting industry was not fully prepared for the digitization to kick off. A new date was then issued by the Nigeria Broadcasting Commission where Mr. Yomi Bolarinwa, Director General, national broadcasting commission announced to the whole world that Nigeria will achieve the digitization of its broadcast stations by June 17 2015. It is unarguable to state that to be in the leading position in today’s highly technological and competitive media industry the world over, Nigeria must strive to acquire and utilize state of-the-art information and communication technologies in its daily news, programme transmission etc. Anything short of this will spell doom for such media organization.

According to Anaeto et al (2008, P. 6) Information Communication Technology has been the converging platform for different word of media communication, information machine and technologies and equipment i.e. Radio, Television, Computers, satellites, Fibre optic Cables, phones, Facsimile machine etc. Consequently, the acquisition, utilization and application of information communication technology in media practice today makes the world activity less cumbersome, faster and error proof. The foregoing views is in tenderm with realistic scholarly position’ adopted by Maid (1996, P:13), who posits that new information, communication technologies have revolutionized information gathering, processing, storage, retrieval and transmission, making information available even more widely, rapidly and less expensive. They do not only gather, process and disseminate information, they can also arrange, marshall and select information rapidly. Inspite of the above merits, the truth still remains that acquisition and application of these advanced media, technologies by media outfits in Nigeria especially the government owned stations in their gathering, packaging and transmission equipment is still insufficient. Indeed, the recent survey carried out in a bid to ascertain the current state of acquisition and utilization of ICT facilities by NTA Enugu Channel 8, which is the study of this project, clearly depicts that the station has not fully embraced this trend in the overall packaging and transmission of News and programmes. Ibeh (2009), Deputy Director Engineering, NTA seems to agree with the foregoing viewpoint when he stated that although the station has technologies in the packaging and transmission of its news programme, yet such sophisticated communication equipment are still inadequate.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Generally the advent of digital broadcast media will bring remarkable, exciting changes to broadcasting. Consumers will have many more choices from broadcast television, from sharp high-definition television programming and multicasting of niche-audience channels to new information services and computer-interactivity. Broadcasters will have new opportunities to develop innovative programming and services, along with new revenue streams and market franchises. DTV will help broadcasting evolve and compete in the new media environment, while ensuring that public interest needs are still met.

However, the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) in its annual stations on TV and radio broadcast in Nigeria, observed that most private and public owned broadcast media outfit are yet to make digital transmission part of their daily broadcasting and even those who are into it are partially implementing it. This research intends to assess the impact of digitization on broadcasting media using NTA Lagos as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine digitization on broadcasting media using NTA Lagos as a case study. The specific objectives include:

  1. Determine the extent at which ICT has been adopted in broadcasting operations of NTA Lagos.
  2. Ascertain the benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria.
  3. Ascertain the problems associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the extent at which ICT has been adopted in broadcasting operations of NTA Lagos?
  2. What are the benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria?
  3. What are the problems associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria?

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

  • Ho: There are no significant benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting media Nigeria.
  • Ha: There are significant benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting media Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is timely because it is on one of the most current and prominent issues. Today, there is intense competition in broadcasting industry all over the world. Also, the study will be of immense benefit to Nigerians especially media professionals as it focuses on providing possible sensitization on making digitization a reality. It is expected that this, will shade more light on where and how media outfit will deliver quality services to the satisfaction of the teaming audience. Finally, students of mass communication will also find the work useful as it touches on their area of specialization.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study is structured to focus on digitalization on broadcasting media using NTA Lagos as a case study. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained staff of NTA Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study. Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Digitization:

This means the use of digital data rather than analogue waveforms to carry broadcasting over television channel.

Broadcast Media:

This means one of the mass media channels that make use of television and radio.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of the impact of digitization on broadcasting media using NTA Lagos as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the impact of digitization on broadcasting media using NTA Lagos as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the extent at which ICT has been adopted in broadcasting operations of NTA Lagos; ascertain the benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria; and ascertain the problems associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of NTA Lagos.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is high adoption of ICT in broadcasting operations of NTA Lagos.
  2. There are various benefits associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria, which includes; digital access to information, simplified means of operations, minimized time and distance barriers, facilitates satellite broadcasting, and enhances news production and output
  3. The problems associated with the digitization of broadcasting industry of Nigeria include; delayed analogue-digital switchover, cost of ICTs acquisition and maintenance, employees’ incompetency, technical issues and power failure.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) and other relevant agencies should ensure that all stations that still use analogue transmission migrate to digital broadcasting to keep Nigeria away from becoming a dumpsite for obsolete technologies.
  2. Broadcast journalists receive additional training and workshops in ICT operations to improve their performance and keep their jobs.
  3. Governments at all levels should create an enabling environment for the public to be ICT literate by making social infrastructure available throughout the country. Also, the cost of acquiring technological equipment should be subsidized.

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