Assessment Of Covid 19 Vaccine Acceptance Among Health Workers In Taraba State Specialist Hospital Jalingo

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Assessment Of Covid 19 Vaccine Acceptance Among Health Workers In Taraba State Specialist Hospital Jalingo


Abstract


This study was carried out on the assessment of covid 19 vaccine acceptance among health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo. The study was carried out to find out whether health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine, ascetain the extent the covid-19 vaccine is accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital, examine the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo and examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of health workers Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo includes: government recommendations, to protect myself from contracting COVID-19, to protect others from contracting COVID-19 and to get rid of the virus and end the pandemic. Therefore, it is recommended that hospitals in Nigeria should provide accurate evidence-based information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and its vaccines safety and efficacy to healthcare workers. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Sophia (2020), even more than a year after it declared the Coronavirus illness (COVID-19) to be a pandemic on 11 March 2020, the disease is still causing a global public health crisis with ongoing infections, deaths, and catastrophic repercussions on both the economic and social fronts. As of August 2021, more than 217 million people have contracted the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (also known as SARS-CoV-2), which was responsible for more than 4.5 million fatalities. Regrettably, it is anticipated that the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to cause significant illness and mortality, as well as destabilise societies and economies all across the world (Madani 2021).

Although a number of prophylactic and therapeutic measures have been attempted, the newly developed immunizations have been shown to be effective in minimising the impact of COVID-19 (Madani 2021). Indeed, non-pharmaceutical methods, like as quarantine, social isolation, wearing masks, and others, had a key role in stopping the pandemic’s spread. This was especially true in the early stages of the epidemic. Despite this, the number of new infections and deaths caused by the disease are both on the rise. There have been a number of different vaccinations created, some of which have been approved, while others are currently through clinical testing.

Notable among these are the Pfizer/BioNtech, AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson Janssen COVID-19 vaccines, all of which have been authorised for use in times of emergency in a variety of countries (Johns Hopkins University 2020). Vaccine acceptance continues to be an essential issue of discussion for the successful immunisation of the general public, and this is true despite the unequal distribution of immunizations between countries with high incomes and those with low incomes.

Along with a number of other vaccines, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) of Nigeria has given its approval for the use of the AstraZeneca1 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine in the country (Davis, 2020). The COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility (COVAX), which is a partnership between the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi the Vaccine Alliance, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, and the World Health Organization, has provided the Nigerian government with multiple batches of the vaccine. The Nigerian government has distributed these vaccines to its citizens. Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator is a global cooperation to expedite the development, manufacture, and equitable access of COVID-19 diagnostics, treatments, and immunizations. The COVAX is a component of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator (Davis, 2020). Since then, the Nigerian National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) has begun immunisation in stages with priority groups, with the first step beginning with frontline healthcare providers. A website for individual self-registration has also been made available online by the organisation in order to facilitate the implementation of a vaccination campaign on a national scale (Johns Hopkins University 2020).

It is absolutely necessary for the COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria to be contained through the implementation of COVID-19 vaccinations so that normal societal functions can be resumed (Sophia 2020). Acceptability of the COVID-19 immunizations is crucial for high uptake; if low acceptance is not addressed, it may hinder uptake. This has been the case in the past with pandemic vaccinations, such as the pandemic vaccine against H1N1 influenza that was administered in 2009. (Madani 2021). (Madani 2021).

According to Johns Hopkins University (2020), just like with other vaccines, numerous factors have the potential to influence the acceptance and uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. These factors include recommendations from parents, efforts to eradicate the virus and put an end to the pandemic, recommendations from universities, decisions made by families, inaccurate information, age, and practical considerations. Understanding the factors that may play a larger role in the acceptance of new vaccines developed for novel viruses and pandemics can be beneficial, particularly in the period prior to the approval of vaccine boosters, when awareness may be low and individuals may be forming attitudes, beliefs, and intentions that influence later vaccination behaviour. This is especially important in the period prior to the approval of vaccine boosters, when individuals may be forming attitudes, beliefs, and intentions that influence later vaccination behaviour (Davis, 2020). Furthermore, early evidence on the facilitators and barriers to the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria can inform the responses of health authorities and other vaccine stakeholders to hesitancy and refusal of vaccines throughout the life of a vaccination programme. This can be done, for instance, to support the acceptance of COVID-19 booster vaccines, the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines, or the vaccination of groups eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines later than others, such as children. Vaccination of groups eligible (Egbuniwe, 2020). This type of evidence can also assist authorities in maintaining sensitivity to people’s questions and concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccines, and in responding in ways that build trust in and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, or other novel vaccines in the future; this is the reason why this study is necessary.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that although though the COVID-19 vaccine is widely available, there are important variables that serve as a barrier to the uptake of vaccinations. The following are some examples of such restrictions: On occasion, the information that is readily available on the COVID-19 is misleading, which can lead to confusion and overload as well as the impression that the development of the vaccine was rushed, as well as religious and cultural barriers, and previous vaccination experiences (ACDC 2020). The negative outcomes of previous pandemics (for example, influenza), most notably the low acceptability in a great number of countries, point to the necessity of gaining a deeper understanding of the acceptance and reluctance of vaccination.

However, there is a dearth of research that has been conducted among students of tertiary institutions, and more specifically among health workers in taraba state specialist hospital Jalingo. Several studies have been conducted in various parts of the world to investigate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and its associated factors in various groups, such as healthcare workers and the elderly. The purpose of this study is to investigate this further.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine covid 19 vaccine acceptance among health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo. Specifically, this study seeks to attain the following objectives:

  1. To find out whether health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine.
  2. Ascertain the extent the covid-19 vaccine is accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospita.
  3. To examine the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.
  4. To examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guide this study:

  1. Are health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo aware of the covid-19 vaccine?
  2. To what extent is the covid-19 vaccine accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospita?
  3. What are the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo?
  4. What are the reason for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:

Ho: The extent Covid-19 vaccine is accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital is low.

Ha: The extent Covid-19 vaccine is accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital is high.


1.6 Significance of the Study

As a health worker, the research investigator recognized a paucity of studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors. Hospital administrators can use the findings of this study to educate nurses on COVID 19 acceptance and the factors that affect the uptake of the vaccine.

Additionally, healthcare providers will use it as a literature review. This means that healthcare providers who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the assessment of covid 19 vaccine acceptance among health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo. Specifically, this study focuses on finding out whether health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine, examining the reasons for covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo, examining the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo and examining the reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo. The respondents for this study will be obtained from Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Covid 19 Pandemic:

Also known as corona-virus), which is spread primarily by contact with infectious material (such as respiratory droplets) or infected materials or surfaces. It is characterized by fever, cough, and shortness of breath, which can lead to pneumonia and respiratory failure.

Vaccine:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.

Acceptance:

This is a general agreement that something is satisfactory or right.

Corona-virus vaccine:

This is also known as COVID‑19 vaccine and is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

HCP:

Health Care Professional

HCW:

Health Care Workers


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of covid 19 vaccine acceptance among health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on assessment of covid 19 vaccine acceptance among health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo. The study specifically was aimed at tofind out whether health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine, ascetain the extent the covid-19 vaccine is accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital, examine the factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo and examine the reasons for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all health workers Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo are aware of the covid-19 vaccine.
  2. The extent the covid-19 vaccine is accepted by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital is high.
  3. The factors associated with the covid-19 vaccine acceptance by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo includes: government recommendations, to protect myself from contracting COVID-19, to protect others from contracting COVID-19 and to get rid of the virus and end the pandemic.
  4. The reason for covid-19 vaccine refusal(if any) by health workers in Taraba State specialist hospital Jalingo includes: vaccine development was rushed, not sure of the vaccine effectiveness, the spread of negative information about the vaccines and concerns about vaccine’s side effects.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government, stakeholders and hospital management should prioritize measures that enhance immunization coverage.
  2. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine will be bolstered by enhanced awareness campaigns and feedback from vaccinated persons on its safety, hence it is recommend.
  3. Hospitals in Nigeria should provide accurate evidence-based information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and its vaccines safety and efficacy to healthcare workers.
  4. More efforts by the Ministry of Health and other governmental bodies are recommended to encourage healthcare workers to accept the vaccine.

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