An Assessment Of Coping Strategies On Balancing Work And Home Responsibilities Or Working Mothers In Abuja

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

An Assessment Of Coping Strategies On Balancing Work And Home Responsibilities Or Working Mothers In Abuja


Abstract


The undertaking of this study focused on investigating the coping strategies on balancing work and home responsibilities or working mothers in Abuja, using female employees in the banking industry with a special reference to Guaranty Trust Bank Nig. PLC using Abuja as case study. Survey research design was employed for the study and with aid of convenient sampling sixty female (66) staff of Guaranty Trust Bank Banks in Abuja Metropolis was selected as the participant of the study. The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data. The questionnaires were properly completed as well returned by only 60 respondent after being administered and this was a basis by which the primary data were collected. The hypothesis was tested using chi-square test statistical tool (SPSS v.2.3)and the result were similar to those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires.

Findings of the study revealed that there is a significant effect of work life balance on the job commitment and performance of female employees in banking Sector, hence insufficient work life balance can impact the productivity level of female employees in Banking Sector.The study therefore recommends that: appropriate policies and initiatives must be implemented by the bank’s human resource department to ensure that there are no obstacles in the practice of work life balance with special consideration to female employee. More so, strict time management and personal effectiveness, effective work load management should be prioritized in order to improve performance among female employees.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Performance of multiple roles is part and parcel of an individual’s professional life. As employees perform multiple roles, they have to face multiple demands put on them by others; both within and outside the organization (Shailaja & Kumar, 2011). The pressures of work, for those women in work, have been intensifying in recent decades. Factors such as the advances in information technology and information load, the need for speed of response, the importance attached to quality of customer service and its implications for constant availability and the pace of change with its resultant upheavals and adjustments all demand for the employed woman’s time and can be sources of pressure (Aravind & Paramashiviah 2011).

A variety of antecedents including role ambiguity, role conflict, time demands and involvement in both the work and family domains are directly and indirectly and positively related to work and family conflict. The most common problem that working women suffer is intense psychological stress (Daultzen et al cited in Arathi & Rajkumar, 2015).

In cities, the long distance from home to work place, late working hours etc., pose a great problem in balancing between work and family life. When female employees are deficient in spending quality time with their families, work and family conflict crop up. Today women working in corporate sectors have long working hours. Overtime the process of working long hours disturbs the balance between work and non work life. Lack of work life balance not only affects the individual but also his organization (Arathi & Rajkumar, 2015).

Work and family constructs are two important aspects of employees’ life and juggling between these two spheres is part of everyday life for millions of employees across the globe (Karimi, Jomehri, Asadzade, & Sohrabi, 2012).Arguably, work-family balance most especially in the Nigerian context, is an issue that bothers women in employment than men (Okonkwo, 2012). This may well be because women combine the very tasking domestic duties which include childcare with their paid work activities. Although both men and women are said to experience inter-role conflict between work and family domains (Walker, Wang & Redmond, 2008) but women typically assume more family responsibilities than men (Pillinger, 2002). Similarly, managing work and family obligations are particularly difficult for women in a patriarchal society (Rehman & Roomi, 2012). For example in Nigeria, the domestic duties of tidying home, cooking for the family, laundry work, and childcare are exclusively women’s job, many of whom are also engaged in full-time paid employment (Okonkwo, 2012).

In this regard, Jacobs and Gerson, (2004) indicate that psychological consequences of combining domestic duties with work responsibilities squarely fall on women. Thus, the demands of work and home pose great challenges for female employees in fulfilling the multiple roles (Peng, IIies & Dimotakis, 2011).

Three indicators have been suggested to maintain a fulfilled life and fulfill organizational commitments, productivity and development. First is work related factors causing problems in work life imbalance due to excessive work load, more pressure, excessive working hours. Second related to outside the work that includes social influence, families, friends, dependent responsibilities. Third are the factors that includes awareness about the methods and policies to manage this work life imbalance (Guest, 2002).

Imbalance in work and life means that the two phases of responsibilities are not being fulfilled. More or less in one phase may lead to disturbance in another also which affect both the work life and personal of an employee. Work stress and work life imbalance are correlated with workaholism regardless of gender (Aziz & Cunningham, 2008).
A central characteristic of work-life balance is the amount of time a female employee spends at work. There are indications that long work hours may harm personal health, endanger safety and increase stress for the female employee. Developing economies like Nigeria are faced with serious economic challenges and labour market pressures added to poor social infrastructures, poverty, high unemployment and corruption. These conditions further exacerbate the work and life of the average Nigerian female employee whose aim is to make a living and who may have to arduously build up accommodating arrangements and cognitive psychological coping behaviours that stimulate desirable satisfaction and effectual functioning both at work and at home. Most female employees in Nigeria are affected by lack of work flexibility, elevated work pressures and long working hours; a situation that decreases their job performance and productivity (Fapohunda, 2014).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of work-life balance, whether implicit or explicit to the organisations and employees cannot be ignored. This is because when female employee struggle to balance their work and family lives, their families and work will be negatively affected. They will be unable to attend to far-reaching family issues, lateness and absenteeism at work will set in, and they will lose concentration at work. Several studies such as Poelmans & Sahibzada (2004) and Lapierre et al (2008) have confirmed that work-family policies can lessen to the minimum levels the issue of lateness, absenteeism, stress, work-family conflict, and increased productivity, job satisfaction and organisational commitment.

Owing to the high level of unemployment that has plagued the Nigerian labour market,organizations and employers of labour mostly in the private sector have taken advantage of this menace by always demanding unattainable and unrealistic results from their female employees with little or no concerns for their social-family wellbeing. This has led to broken homes, job dissatisfaction and sub-optimal commitment and underperformance by many female employees.

Many of the studies on work life balance and performance of female employees were done outside Nigeria. In Nigeria, most of the available studies about work life balance and organizational performance such as Okonkwo (2012), Ojo (2012), Oludayo, Gberevbie & Popoola (2015) were too brief and lacking depths. Moreover, these researches were also theoretical studies whose findings were subjectively based on researchers’ personal opinions. It is noted that the past studies did not give adequate attention to work life balance and performance of female employees in the banking industry in Nigeria. Hence the undertaking of this study will fill in the gap in knowledge by critically investigating the effects of Work Life Balance on Performance of female employees in the banking industry with a special reference to Guaranty Trust Bank Nig. PLC.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study was conducted with the following objectives;

  1. To examine the effect of work life balance on performance of female employees.
  2. To determine the effect of work life balance on commitment of female employees.
  3. To ascertain if absence of work life balance impact the the productivity level of female employees.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the effect of work life balance on performance of female employees ?
  2. What is the effect of work life balance on commitment of female employees ?
  3. Does the absence of work life balance impact the productivity level of female employees?
  4. What is the coping strategies for balancing work and home responsibilities ?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. HO1: There is no sisgnificant effect of work life balance on the performance of female employees
  2. HO2: Work life balance has no effect on the job commitment of female employees.
  3. HO3: Absence of work life balance does not impact the the productivity level of female employees.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study will educate the general public and managers of corporate organizations and the banking sector on the causes of low productivity of female employee and how improved organizational culture can be used to maintain proper work life balance. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will cover in the gap in knowledge by critically investigating thecoping strategies on balancing work and home responsibilities or working mothers in abuja a special reference to Guaranty Trust Bank Nig. PLC in selected branches in Abuja.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Besides time and resources constraint the researcher encountered some of the limitations that hampered the study revolves around gathering of primary materials and analyzing data. The banks unwillingness to release all the necessary data for the research work, probably for the fear of competitors however the researhcer assured them of anonimity as the information obtained is vital to this study hence considered confidential. More so, the uncooperative attitude of the female bankers which led to the non-return of some questionnaires was another setback to the researcher. However inspite of the limitations the researcher painstakinly ensured that these factors were downplayed.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Work Life Balance:

Work-life balance is the state of equilibrium where a person equally prioritizes the demands of one’s career and the demands of one’s personal life. Work-life balance includes a balance between work and personal life that both bring satisfaction to the individual

Employee Performance:

Employee performance is how a member of staff fulfils the duties of their role, completes required tasks and behaves in the workplace

Banking Industry:

The modern banking industry is a network of financial institutions licensed by the state to supply banking services. The principal services offered relate to storing, transferring, extending credit against, or managing the risks associated with holding various forms of wealth.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The undertaking of this study focused on investigating the coping strategies on balancing work and home responsibilities or working mothers in abuja with a special reference to Guaranty Trust Bank Nig. PLC using Abuja as case study.The study’s objectives examined the effect of work life balance on performance of female employees. It determined the effect of work life balance on commitment of female employees. It ascertained if absence of work life balance impact the the productivity level of female employees.

Survey research design was employed for the study and with aid of convenient sampling sixty female (66) staff of Guaranty Trust Bank Banks in Abuja Metropolis was selected as the participant of the study. The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data. The questionnaires were properly completed as well returned by only 60 respondent after being administered and this was a basis by which the primary data were collected. Textbooks, journals, articles, law reports, newspapers publications, were collected as secondary data, and also limitations to the study were indicated.The hypothesis was tested using chi-square teststatistical tool (SPSS v.2.3)and the result were similar to those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires.


5.2 Conclusion

The importance of work-life balance has been gaining ground in recent years to capture a wider range of groups, including female employee combining personal, family lives with full-time employment and some of them with part-time studies as well. The banking sector is one of the most human resource intensive sector. Banking employees stay in the bank for longer hours doing routine work, which could be highly tasking on their mental health. Insufficient work life balance is a challenge that poses a big risk to female banking workers’ well-being, their performance as well as the organizational performance. Other effect of lack of work life balance includes Far-reaching family issues, broken home, lateness and absenteeism at work lose concentration at work.

From the analysis of the study the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant effect of work life balance on the performance of female employees in Banking Sector.
  2. Work life balance has an effect on the job commitment of female employees in Banking Sector.
  3. Insufficient work life balance can impact the productivity level of female employees in Banking Sector.

5.3 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made from the conclusion of this study:

  1. Appropriate policies and initiatives must be implemented by the bank’s human resource department to ensure that there are no obstacles in the practice of work life balance i.e written policy on work life balance.
  2. Stress management and conducting training programmes in relation to work life balance through which the organization can improve the Work Life Balance of their staff. e.g. time management and personal effectiveness, effective work load management should be prioritized in order to improve performance among employees.
  3. Employers should ensure they organize regular Emotional Intelligence program for female employee to uplift their personal, professional as well as methodological effectiveness as this would enhance organizational commitment.
  4. Management of organizations should enhance their leadership styles,engagement and policies in order to create a serene working environment and condition which would reduce female employee’s job stress, help them maintain balance and enhance employee’ commitment to organization.
  5. Female employees should make personal effort to enhancetheir interpersonal skills, mental disposition and ensure effective commitment to organization where they work.

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