Assessment Of The Contribution Of Adult Education Programme Towards Education For Self-Actualization

Project and Seminar Material Under Adult Education

Assessment Of The Contribution Of Adult Education Programme Towards Education For Self-Actualization


Abstract


This research work was on the assessment of the contribution of adult reduction programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State. To carry out the study effectively, six research questions and two null hypotheses were posed. The population for the study is 816 registered women learners in adult education programmes in Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State.

The major instrument used for data collection was a FMWPALPQ Questionnaire with 36 items. Among the major findings are:

  1. That the greatest education factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are obtaining certificate for a better job, becoming literate, and improvement on communicative skills;
  2. That the greatest psychological factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are being respected in the family and society, boosting of ego in the society, occupying higher positions of authority in the society, and overcoming inferiority complex.

Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were proffered. Some of them are:

  1. That Enugu State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education, in conjunction with Commission for Women Affairs, should embark on a realistic and holistic campaign for women’s education, emphasizing that age is no barrier to education.
  2. That adult education administrators, supervisors, co-ordinators and other people involved in the provision of adult education programmes should ensure that the time and venue for the adult education programmes are conducive and friendly to the female adult learners.

Finally, suggestions for further research were made.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Adult Education is the type of education that people desire and cherish as long as they exist, irrespective of the level they have attained in life. According to Reddy (2000), adult education is a part time or full-time education for men or women of all ages, either organized by themselves or provided by schools, learning centres, or other agencies which enable them to improve their general or professional knowledge, skills and abilities by either continuing their education or resuming their initial or incomplete education of previous years. Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN (2008) stated that adult education is an integral part of education that involves a learning process or situation outside a formal school system, emphasizing all forms of functional education programmes for youth and adults outside formal school system. Such education programmes include Basic literacy programme, post-literacy programme, continuing education programme, vocational education programme. These educational programmes are all geared towards human resource development in particular and the national development in general. Adult education could also be referred to as the education programme people attend despite the levels of education they already acquired. Guodong (2003) therefore regarded adult education as broad field education, vocational and technical education, higher education and professional development, and is offered through formal, non-formal and informal education means, and by a variety of actors. He further stated that adult education is a highly dynamic field associated with innovativeness, and with values and practices once viewed as relevant and desirable.
The motivation behind adult education is mainly to create a healthy and prosperous community.

Adult education creates steps that the illiterates follow to improve themselves and contribute to the development of the society. It helps the illiterate citizens to acquire skills that help them to improve their standard of living. The importance of adult education in any society therefore cannot be ignored. This is because the level of illiteracy among the populace should not be allowed to continue because of national development needs. According to Obetta (1998: 21):

Our economy cannot be said to have left the subsistence unless we are able to provide every human being in our land the opportunity to be able to read and write, for the modern man is not truly modern if he cannot read and sign his name. Any other approach would be as confusing and regrettable to the modern mind as the meaninglessness of the fingerprint to the illiterate who is asked to use that as the symbol of his signature. So often, we have witnessed the frustration and humiliation which are the constant companions of an illiterate in contemporary society.

In view of this, there is great need to make the non-literate masses, men and women, workers and non-workers, marginalized and non-marginalized to be literate through adult education programmes. One of the objectives of adult education is to reduce the level of illiteracy in the society. In our society today, there are many people who had no access to education due to problems emanating from their poor socio-economic background. Adult education is therefore one of the means of bridging this gap.

Adult education could be used to supplement the earlier education people had already acquired or could serve as an addition to what they already obtained or remedy to those who could not complete the formal educational system. This type of education is needed by workers in various spheres of life. It could be in form of in-service training or on-the-job training. According to Obetta (1998), mass education which includes within its purview adult education, whether in terms of continuing basic education – should be the order of the day both for individual’s self-actualization, for national development and for international relations. Our people should be made to understand the need for adult education especially those who were not privileged to pass through formal system of education. Okeem (1991) stated that the world is striving daily to transform into a literate entity. This brought about various literacy schemes and programmes designed to meet the universal aspiration.

Changes in the economic conditions in the country have necessitated women to awake from slumber by participating actively in adult education programmes to enable them increase their productivity in money-yielding ventures. In view of this, Ohakwe (1994) opined that some women in recent times occupy important posts in various companies and some own business of their own. In the same vein, Agaba (1998) opined that the place of women in Nigeria and the world over has changed from kitchen-bound position to the assumption of important offices and responsible positions. He cited instances of women prime ministers such as Mrs. Bardaranika of Ceylon, Mrs. Indira Gandhi of India, among others. Education has played an important role in the life of women presently. In view of this, Ngwu (2003) maintained that women education becomes the instrument for their own liberation. It is also an instrument for social transformation because it attempts to construct a new society, which will conform to the interests and aspirations of the popular sectors.

As it relates to the psychological factors, some women tend to enroll in adult education programme to boost their ego. According to Obeta, Omeje and Omeje (2003), the need for self-respect is strong among those people generally classified as common people. This need also motivates women to participate in adult literacy education programme and to work harder. They want to understand the changes that are going on in their society and enjoy freedom to act as socially responsible members of the community.

Through adult education programmes, women have been elevated to some prominent political, social, religious and economic positions. As such, they can play leadership roles effectively in the present society because of their acquisition of political empowerment. Obetta (2004) noted that political empowerment enhances democratic and responsible governance which have effective leadership skills, decision-making strategies and a mastery of the dynamics of planned change as its components. Adult education improves family-role matters as it enables women to enhance their family economic status and provide their children with further opportunities and advantages. In the same vein, adult education programmes enable women to widen their knowledge and acquire skills for income-generation as a means of gaining the much needed economic independence. Obi (2006) affirmed that adult education programmes enable illiterate adults to improve their skills acquisition, knowledge, economic, social, psychological, family-role, educational and political roles in the society.

In a rapidly developing nation as Nigeria, the present status of women’s education is still at the subsistence level. According to Eyibe (1999), the Nigerian women still lag behind their counterparts in several parts of the world in the area of education, employment, health, political participation, among others. The Nigerian government has made several efforts to improve the level of education of women in the country as can be seen in the various functional literacy programmes that have been designed to provide them with courses in family health, food and nutrition, childcare, domestic science and basic education. It can therefore be seen that a lot of adult education programmes have enabled the women to advance educationally, socially, politically, psychologically and economically.

Oji-River Local Government Area has six adult literacy centres that are spread along the six communities. The communities are Oji-River town, Ugwuoba, Achi, Inyi, Awlaw and Akpugoeze. In these literacy centres, there are materials for teaching and learning. Instructors were recruited for the exercise. The learners were engaged in many learning activities such as reading and writing, skills acquisition, basic literacy, vocational education, cooperative societies, family-planning methods, primary healthcare, nutrition, water and sanitation and rural development among others in the various communities.

Through adult education programmes, these women would be properly equipped with the right skills for the development of the society. Obetta (2004) stated that no meaningful development can occur without women, so the extent to which women should have enabling powers to contribute to, and benefit from development, deserve proper and prompt attention. Adult education programmes will help women immensely as they are the backbone of rural development. They are found in agriculture and outside it. In the household, they hold an unassailable preeminence tending to their children, and even their husbands. The degree of disorganization and chaos that occurs when the women are absent in their houses confirm the extent of their importance (Ijere, 1991). Ijere also maintained that from the dawn of the day till the dusk, women are involved in restless and all-consuming events. It then follows that programmes of rural transformation would be better promoted when majority of the citizenry, including women are educated. Obetta (2004) stated that it was in realization of the need to have women run their lives and become part and parcel of socio-economic and political agenda in their communities and nations that the United Nations in Mexico Conference of 1975 raised issues concerning women and development. The ultimate goal was to empower women to develop their potentials and contribute to the benefit and development of their societies on equal basis with men. Education is the surest means of achieving this empowerment for women.


Statement of the Problem

In Nigerian society in recent times, most women are denied the opportunity of being educated due to some negative factors such as culture, religion, sex, poverty, ignorance, discrimination, among others. Empowering women with education will eliminate these inhibiting factors. Adebukola (2001) stressed that when a women is professionally empowered, she will make use of her endowment in a positive way and being a master in her profession, she will not be deprived the right to practice, so as to benefit the nation.

According to Obetta (2004), since the declaration of women empowerment at the Beijing Conference of 1995, there have been sporadic changes in life of Nigerian women. Many of them enrolled in education programmes including adult education programme. Through adult education programme, many of them are now more self-reliant; have the ability to read and write letters as well as keeping of proper account. In addition, some of the women have obtained certificates for better jobs. However, the present low status of majority of Nigerian women cannot be neglected. This is because the major objective of adult education programme in Nigeria is to make the nearly 60 million Nigerian illiterates functionally literate. The achievement of the objectives of adult education programme cannot be effective without the reduction of high illiteracy rate of the female population in Nigeria. This can be realized by motivating them to participate in adult education programme.

In Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State, the task of providing adult education programme to its populace, especially the womenfolk is in progress. This is in realization of the enormous role women play in national development. The adult education programme is to make the nearly 37.8 million female illiterates functionally literate. The objective of the programme was aimed at achieving social, economic, and political emancipation and progress of female folk. It is therefore a fact that the process of adult education programme cannot be sustained without the adult learners being adequately motivated. If this is not done, it will create problems such as poverty, malnutrition and diseases, women marginalization, among others, hence the need for the study.


Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the contribution of adult reduction programme towards education for self-actualization.

Specifically, the study sought to find out the:

  1. Economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.
  2. Education factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.
  3. Psychological factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.
  4. Political factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.
  5. Family factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.
  6. Factors militating against effective participation in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area.

Significance of this Study

The findings of this study would be significant and useful to the Department of Adult Education in the Nigerian Universities and other tertiary institutions; Administrators of local government councils, the planners/policy makers in Women Affairs Commission, community-based (women) organizations (C.B.Os) and non-governmental Organizations (NGOs).

First, this will help the Department of Adult Education in the Nigerian Universities and other tertiary institutions to be more equipped on the factors that promote women’s education and thereby train personnel that would facilitate the adult women learners.

The findings would help the planners/policy makers of Enugu State Women Affairs Commission to mount an effective adult education programmes that would be beneficial to the women in particular and to the generality of the people of the state. The findings of the study would also be of great use to community-based (women) organizations (C.B.Os) and non-governmental Organizations (NGOs). It would serve as a very useful working document for them.

Finally, the findings would help the state agency for mass literacy, adult and non-formal education (SAME) to identify the factors militating against effective participation in adult education programme. Surmounting such factors would help the promotion of women’s education to be carried out effectively and efficiently.


Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the economic factors motivating women’s participating in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area?
  2. What are the education factors motivating women’s participating in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area?
  3. What are the psychological factors motivating women’s participating in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area?
  4. What are the political factors motivating women’s participating in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area?
  5. What are the family factors motivating women’s participating in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area?
  6. What are the factors militating against the effective participation in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area?

Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

H01: There is no significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean ratings of young and older female adult learners on the political factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.

H02: There is no significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean ratings of adult learners who are civil servants and those who are non-civil servants on the economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization in Oji-River Local Government Area.


Scope of the Study

This study examined the assessment of the contribution of adult reduction programme towards education for self-actualization. The study was conducted in Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State. The study focused on only the registered women that participate in adult education programme in the local government. It was restricted to the factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization such as economic, education, psychological, political and family factors, as well as the factors militating against the effective participation in adult education programme in Oji-River Local Government Area of Enugu State.


Chapter Five


Discussion Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

This chapter deals with the Summary of the Findings, Discussion of Findings, Educational Implications of the Study, Conclusion, Recommendations and Suggestions for Further Studies.


Summary of the Findings

The result of the study revealed the following major findings:

  1. The greatest economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are gaining an employment, earning an improved income, and becoming self-employed.
  2. The greatest education factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are obtaining certificate for a better job, becoming literate, and improvement on communicative skills.
  3. The greatest psychological factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are being respected in the family and society, boosting of ego in the society, occupying higher positions of authority in the society, and overcoming inferiority complex.
  4. The greatest political factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are participating actively in decision-making in the community, learning how to vote wisely in elections, consulting them in political matters in the community, and recognition of their rights in the society.
  5. The greatest family factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are taking care of their husbands, acquisition of additional skills for the family up-bringing, possessing skills to maintain healthier household, and having a better and organized home.
  6. The major factors militating against the effective participation of women in adult education programme are psychological feeling that one is too old to learn, cultural inhibitions, religious prohibitions, and belief that woman’s education ends in the kitchen.
  7. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of young and older female adult learners on the political factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization.
  8. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of adult learners who are civil servants and those who are non-civil servants on the economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization.

Discussion of Findings

The findings of the study revealed that the greatest economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are gaining an employment, earning an improved income, and becoming self-employed. This is in line with the assertion of Obeta, et al (2003) who maintained that women participate in those activities which they feel will bring increased income, which they could use to supplement whatever is available or brought in by the breadwinners of the family. Also, more women presently have received formal education and as such have more economic power. Women are found in areas that once were exclusively for men, in professions like medicine, law, engineering, architecture and rural development (Ijere, 1992). The findings of the study rated low having a better standard of living, and becoming self-reliant as one of the economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization. However, Omeje, et al (2003) observed that among other things, adult female learners attend adult education programme because they want to keep their own record of account. Supporting Omeje, et al (2003), Kene (1995) stated that the rural women would not only learn to read and write but would be able to increase their abilities to keep their own account.

On education factors, the findings of the study showed that greatest education factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are obtaining certificate for a better job, becoming literate, and improvement on communicative skills. Okpoko (2002) agreed with the above view that when provided with adequate non-formal education programme, rural women will demonstrate a substantial improvement in their skills – domestic tasks, food production, healthcare and reproduction. Similarly, Obetta (2004) stated that education is the foundation for the promotion and improvement of the status of women. It is the basic tool which equips women to fulfill their duties as wives, mothers and partners in development. Education mobilizes the untapped resourcefulness of women in order for them to contribute most effectively to their surrounding society. Also, supporting the right of women’s education, Obeta, et al (2003) stated that education helps women to be proficient in their responsibilities towards their fellow-men and emphasizes the need for their talents in their public services.

In a related development, the findings of the study revealed that the greatest psychological factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are being respected in the family and society, boosting of ego in the society, occupying higher positions of authority in the society, and overcoming inferiority complex. Ugwoegbu (1992) stated that participation in a learning programme depends more on psychological factors that are constantly stressed. The resultant effect is its motivation on the person’s desire to participate in an educational activity. The participation in the activity provides a means of enhancing herself and others. So, achieving literacy education is the first step to enabling women to take control over their lives to participate as equals in society and to free themselves from economic and patriarchal exploitation (Phiri, 1992).
Enemuo (2001) in his own contribution stated that effective and sustainable process of women empowerment must necessarily include the expansion of women’s access to educational opportunities, skills acquisition and positions of authority. Adebukola (2001) noted that when a woman is professionally empowered, she will make use of her endowment in a positive way, and being a master in her profession, she will not be deprived the right to practice, so as to benefit the nation. Even though the having control over their personal lives, and being bold and fearless were rated low as factors motivating women’s enrollment in adult education programme, Omeje, et al (2003) maintained that through adult education programme, women would be skilled and efficient in their occupation or career and ability to change their career to better ones.

The findings of the study further showed that the greatest political factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are participating actively in decision-making in the community, learning how to vote wisely in elections, consulting them in political matters in the community, and recognition of their rights in the society. Supporting these findings, Afigbo (1991) noted that educated women have achieved a lot in the leadership role in Africa. One of these women, Queen Dauranana, figured prominently in the Central Sudan in the early history of the Hausa Communities. She was the ruler of the state of Daura at the time of the last series of invasion that led to the emergence of the seven Hausa states. In his own contributions, Ijere (1992) stressed that literacy programme enables women to acquire political and leadership positions. According to Ijere, women who are politically and educationally empowered would do more home work in their schedule of activities.
Furthermore, Eboh (2002) had it that women have taken some prominent positions and occupied many leadership roles in many occasions due to level of education they have attained. According to Eboh, the following female leaders succeeded in their leadership positions in their various states because they had the opportunity to acquire literacy which gave them the backbone to stand: the Ethiopian Queen of Sheba, the Legendary Queen Amina of Zaria, the Queens of Daura and the Queen mothers of Ashanti in Ghana, Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of United Kingdom, Corazon Aquino of Philippine, Indira Gandhi of India, Genazir Bhutto of Pakistan, Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundland of Norway, the Prime Minister Golden Meir of Israel, Mrs. Bardaranika, The Chief Executive of a National Government in Sri Lanka, the Dominican Prime Minister, Eugenia Charles and President Violeta Chamorro Nicaragua.

On the family factors, the findings revealed that the greatest family factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are taking care of their husbands, acquisition of additional skills for the family up-bringing, possessing skills to maintain healthier household, and having a better and organized home. On this, Omeje (2010) stressed that the factors that motivate women to participate in distance education programme include improving family management as their husbands wish them to learn and write and be able to take care of the children at home. Also, Udugwomen (2004) affirmed that education has imbibed enough discipline in our educated women to enable them maintain a healthier house and a more organized family than her uneducated counterpart. In support of the above assertion, Ugwoegbu (1992) stated that participation of an adult female in a learning programme provides a means of enhancing herself and others. Okide and Obetta (2011) emphasized that for a person to live with the family and social demands of the present age, he/she has to be literate, as it is literacy that removes inferiority complex and offers the confidence needed for good behaviour and child-caring. Therefore, an educated woman is an asset to the family. Emphasizing the influence of an educated woman in the family, Osuala (1997) stated that women as mothers are educators within their family. What they learn, they pass on to their children and thus to future generations. This means that through adult education, women are aware of the need for the education of their children.

The findings of the study also revealed that the major factors militating against the effective participation of women in adult education programme are psychological feeling that one is too old to learn, cultural inhibitions, religious prohibitions, and belief that woman’s education ends in the kitchen. On these, Indabawa (2004) stressed that the socio-cultural factors which militate against girls and participation in adult education include early marriage, hawking practice, the poverty level of families, poor practices on the support of/for girls’ education, some misunderstanding on the position of Islam on women’s education, society’s poor attitude to girls’/women’s education, irrelevance of the curriculum to the nature of women, poor female participation in studying the sciences, female’s poor self-concept and poor link between education and employment. In their own contributions, Ekpo, Orok, Ekukinam and Okon (2003) observed that the factors militating against women participation in adult education include the social structure of the society, geographical location, family structure, childbearing and rearing and influence from other members of the extended family. Again, Moda (1992) asserted that many women find it difficult to attain adult basic education classes because the agencies fail to recognize the importance of family-time table.

The analysis on hypothesis one revealed that there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of young and older female adult learners on the political factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization. The analysis deduced that both young and older female adult learners agreed that the greatest political factors that motivate women to participate in adult education programme are participating actively in decision-making in the community, learning how to vote wisely in elections, consulting them in political matters in the community, and recognition of their rights in the society.

Also, the analysis on hypothesis two revealed that there is no significant difference between the mean ratings of adult female learners who are civil servants and those who are non-civil servants on the economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization. The indication is that both adult female learners who are civil servants and those who are non-civil servants agreed that the greatest economic factors that motivate women to participate in adult education programme are gaining an employment, earning an improved income, and becoming self-employed.


Educational Implication of the Study

The results of this research indicate a number of implications for government, organizers of women adult education programme and the society. The study revealed that the greatest economic factors Motivating Participation in Adult education programme towards education for self-actualization are gaining an employment, earning an improved income, and becoming self-employed. The implication here is that government should as a matter of urgency establish more skills acquisition centres in the rural areas for female learners. Such skills acquisition centres will enable them to be self-employed and earn an improved income.

On psychological factors, the study also revealed that adult education programme helps women to be respected in the family and society, boost ego in the society, occupy higher positions of authority in the society, and overcome inferiority complex. These findings imply that the adult literacy facilitators and other organizers of adult education programmes should ensure that the female adult learners are adequately motivated to learn by stirring their interest in the programme. Also, the behaviour of the adult education literacy programme organizers should be accommodating, friendly and respect commanding.

The study further showed that the major factors militating against the effective participation of women in adult education programme are psychological feeling that one is too old to learn, cultural inhibitions, religious prohibitions, and belief that woman’s education ends in the kitchen. The implication of this finding is that for the female adult learners to be sustained in the adult education programme, the society should change its attitude towards women and recognize that they (women) are integral part of the society. Therefore, all the obnoxious cultural and religious inhibitions and prohibitions against women should be eliminated. Also, the adult literacy organizers should always make allowance for the social situations of the female adult learners. They should always take the learning programme to where the female adult learners are.


Conclusion

Effective participation of women in adult education programme demands an organization of effective communication, which will remove the fear of the potential and prospective learners that they are too old to learn what is taught in the adult literacy centres. Building of flexibility into the structure and scheduling of the programme should take care of illiterate female adults who feel that they are incapable of combining engagements in their occupation and participation in the adult education programmes.

Ensuring effective participation of women in adult education programme through active motivation will help to free the women from ignorance, low wage employment and unemployment, and inequality, injustice and corruption. The achievement of this transformation will go a long way to bringing about development on a self-sustaining basis and equality in the society.

Finally, it is very important to note that a successful adult education programme can be achieved through the employment of better motivational strategies. These strategies include adequate publicity for the programme, improving the means of funding of the programme and provision of effective and efficient instructional materials and methods. Giving the adult education programme wider publicity can be achieved through the re-activation of the use of radio, television, cinema, newspapers, and magazines among others. They will help immensely in the dissemination of information on the programme. Also, making the adult education programme tuition-free for the learners, the female learners, will go a long way to improving the level of women participation in the programme. Other motivational strategies that can be put in place include facilitating the female adult learners in their native language as it is enshrined in the National Policy on Education, using a wide range of participatory teaching methods, and establishing the adult literacy centres in village squares rather than in schools or churches.


Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered:

Enugu State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education, in conjunction with Commission for Women Affairs, should embark on a realistic and holistic campaign for women’s education, emphasizing that age is no barrier to education. Towards this direction, the use of radio, television, cinema, and newspapers should be re-activated to disseminate information and publicize women’s education. Through these media, potential female adult learners would be motivated to participate in adult education programme. These media would help to project adult education programme as a continuous process that requires sustained learning and application.

Enugu State Government should promulgate edict prohibiting early marriage syndrome in the state. This is to enable the young women to attend formal education before getting married at the matured stage.

Enugu State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-formal Education (SAME) should establish adult literacy resource centres and rural libraries in all the communities where adult literacy centres are established. This would help to provide course materials, computers for computer-assisted instructions and other supplementary learning materials for the female adult learners.

The government, non-governmental organizations and all-good spirited individuals should be involved in the funding of the adult education programme by creating budgetary and statutory allocation for the programme. The adult education programme, especially for women should be made free as enshrined in the Millennium Development Goals Blue Print.

Heads of community development associations, traditional rulers, community-based associations and other opinion leaders should be involved in the management of community education projects especially adult education programme. This will embrace planning, implementation and evaluation of the programme. It will go a long way to motivating the potential adult learners, especially the female folks in the community. This can be done through the formation of village education committee (VEC).

Adult literacy administrators, supervisors, co-ordinators and other people involved in the provision of adult education programme should ensure that the time and venue for the adult education programme are conducive and friendly to the female adult learners. Also, there should be regular supervision and monitoring of the programme to ensure that the facilitators perform their duties effectively and efficiently.

The National Mass Education Commission (NMEC) should periodically review the adult literacy curriculum to ensure that it embraces the felt-needs and aspirations of the female adult learners. This should include the development of active citizenship, improved health and livelihoods, and gender equality. Therefore, skills training/acquisition centres should be provided to train young women on different life acquisition skills. The skills acquisition centres should serve as post-literacy education programme.

Enugu State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education (SAME) should ensure that a wide range of participatory methods are used in facilitating the female adult learners in the adult literacy centres. These would help to ensure the active engagement of female adult learners in adult education programme. These same participatory methods and processes should be used at all levels of training of trainers and facilitators.
Enugu State Agency for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education (SAME) should ensure that the recruited facilitators are from the local people who received substantial initial training and regular refresher training. Also, the recruited adult literacy facilitators should ensure that the female adult learners are given active choice about the language in which they learn, especially, in multilingual contexts as in the case of Nigeria. Therefore, efforts should be made to encourage and sustain at least bilingual learning in adult education centres.


Suggestions for Further Research

Following the findings of this study, the researcher suggested some areas for further study. They are:

  1. The influence of spoken language in literacy instruction as a motivational strategy for the participation of women in adult education programme in Enugu State.
  2. The factors that affect the utilization of learning materials for effective facilitation of adult education programme in Enugu State.
  3. Assessment of community education needs of the rural women in Enugu-West Senatorial Zone of Enugu State.
  4. Assessment of the administration of adult education programme for the rural women in Enugu-West Senatorial Zone of Enugu State.
  5. Assessment of the adult literacy facilitators’ perceptions of female adult learners’ characteristics on effective facilitation of adult literacy in Enugu State.

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