Assessment Of New Communication And Information Technology In Radio Broadcasting: A Study Of BRC And FRCN Bauchi.

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Assessment Of New Communication And Information Technology In Radio Broadcasting: A Study Of BRC And FRCN Bauchi.


Abstract


The role of information communication technologies cannot be over emphasized. This is because information and communication technologies have made it possible for dissemination of information evenly and to a wide range of audience. The study therefore seeks to find out the level of application of ICTs in FRCN Bauchi and BRC Bauchi respectively. The study is anchored on the technological determinism and diffusion of innovation theory. The study adopted survey research design and Questionnaire was the basic instrument used for the study The findings of this study shows that the level of application of new information and communication technology in the two radio stations studied was not impressive because of the following reasons: the two radio stations are still operating on analogue, also the staffers of the two radio stations do not have enough access to new communication technologies and cannot operate same and where they do; they only have access to and operate computer and internet. Although, the findings show that respondents agree to the importance of new information and communication technologies but they do not use the internet every day. The study recommends that in order to completely eliminate ICT illiteracy among broadcasters, the government of Bauchi State should make Information Technology literacy training a mandatory course in every media houses.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Stud
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Operational Definitions of Term

Chapter Two:

Theoretical Frame Work and Literature Review

  • 2.1 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.1.1 The Technological Determinism Theory
  • 2.1.2 Diffusion of Innovations Theory
  • 2.2. Conceptual Review
  • 2.2.1 Concepts of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
  • 2.2.2 Development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
  • 2.2.3 Radio Broadcasting
  • 2.2.4 The Evolution of Broadcasting in Nigeria
  • 2.2.5 Challenges of New Media Technologies in the Nigerian Broadcast Industry
  • 2.2.6 History of Electronic Media in Nigeria
  • 2.2.7 Brief History of FRCN and BRC Bauchi
  • 2.2.7.1 History of FRCN
  • 2.2.7.2 History of BRC
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Methods of the Study

  • 3.1 Research Method
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample size and sampling techniques
  • 3.4 Research instrument
  • 3.5 Validity of research instruments
  • 3.6 Reliability of the instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Administration of Research Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Results

  • 4.1 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Limitation
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Questionnaire

List of Tables


  • TABLE 1: Which of the new media technology do you have access to in your office
  • TABLE 2: how many of the new media technology can you operate efficiently
  • TABLE 3: how has the use of new media technology contributed to the success of your job
  • TABLE 4: what type of studio does your station operate with
  • TABLE 5: How often do you make use of the internet in your office
  • TABLE 6: What are staff attitude to the use of these new media technologies
  • TABLE 7: What are the factors responsible for the station level of ICT application
  • TABLE 8: What are the implications of the present level of ICT
  • TABLE 9: What measures have been put in place by your organization to expose members of staff to advancements in new media technologies in order to meet the challenges of modern broadcasting
  • TABLE 10: Gender distribution of respondents
  • TABLE11: Age distribution of respondents
  • TABLE 12: Educational qualification distribution of respondents
  • TABLE 13: Marital status distribution of respondents
  • TABLE 14: Name of radio station
  • TABLE 15: Length of service with your organization

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background of Study

Human existence would have been meaningless without Information and Communication. Ideas, values, policies and every aspect of socio-cultural, political and economic obligation within the human environments would have been difficult to achieve without adequate dose of information and communication, Daramola (2003). As a result, information acts as grease for lubricating the entire society. However, the invention of modern means of communication with the help of civilization made possible with the advancement of science and technology, the world has gradually become a ‘global village’.

Ekwelie and Okonkwo (1983) in Ukonu (2008) recorded that “at one time, man depended on iron and wooden gong, the town crier for the exchange, transmission and dissemination of information and vital news,” but after the second world war, a great leap was made from this tasking mode of information dissemination to a more advanced, mechanized method of transmitting message or news.

Broadcasting came to Nigeria in stages, one of which was the introduction of wired broadcasting more popularly known as radio distribution or re-diffusion in 1939 by the colonial government of British Broadcast Co-operation (BBC) to redistribute its programme by means of wires connected to loudspeakers installed in various homes of subscribers, Ukonu (2008). It was developed in the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1920’s and exported to their colonies. However, its introduction to Nigeria was on the initiative of the engineers of the post of telegraph department in Lagos who had been involved in monitoring the transmission of the BBC on short wave, Ukonu (2008). Since then, the Nigerian mass media industry has witnessed a phenomenal growth since the establishment of Nigeria Broadcasting Service in 1957 and the country’s first television station, set up by the then government of the former western region in 1959, (Daramola, 2003). He explained further that the establishment of western Nigerian Broadcasting Service combined Radio and African first Television service triggered a race by the other two regions to setup theirs. The information and Communication as a loose term in describing ways in which people, machines and communication system can work together to make jobs quicker, more efficient and more accurate, (Mbam: 2002).

Siegfried Mandel (1962) stated that the world crossed into “information superhighway”, and it is this information superhighway that has tremendously changed the role of communication and information dissemination in the society. Today, with the help of great innovation and scientific inventions, mass communication has been revolutionized with the help of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), (Mbam: 2002). Now we talk about satellite transmission and communication, computer communication, digital broadcasting system, computer, internet information and Communication, digital cellular phones (like GSM), fibre optics, microwave technologies, radio visual systems, robots enterprise software among others.

When Marshal McLuhan talked about the global village many years ago, people at that time thought he was a joker. The new communication technologies have made people become increasingly involved in one another’s life. As Baran, (2009) observes, technologies is not itself a medium but a social force that brings changes to the media world. Therefore, communication is any artifacts manipulated by man to aid him communicate interpersonally or massively, Baran (2009).

The impact of the information and communication technology on media industry has improved as information can reach people around the world within seconds, for instance, digital technology has placed us at a point of a new significant way of development in the history of human communication often called “the Information society” and has transformed the way many men and women work in the media industry, Baran, (2009). Also, information can be sent all around the world within seconds with the new technologies, and news can reach people when it happens.
Information and Communication Technologies have made it possible for dissemination of information evenly and to a wide range of audience especially with the advent of GSM in Nigeria, both the literate, illiterate, urban and rural dwellers alike are kept abreast of vital issues, thereby closing up communication gap or information, (Mbam: 2002).

Therefore, in realization of this view, it interests the researchers to assess the application of Information and Communication Technologies in the Globe FM Bauchi Broadcasting Service (GFMB) station and Bauchi Radio Corporation (BRC).


1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

The new information and communication technologies have been acknowledged by some scholars as the threshold of globalizing the world. Information Technology acts as a great facilitator in globalizing, uniting the disintegrated world and enabling people to gain access to knowledge and services, Baran, (2009). There is no doubt that the world is becoming homogenous and differences between people are distinguishing. So, there is need for the Nigeria media to live up to the challenges.

There are many opinions that Globe FM Bauchi and Bauchi Radio Corporation station cannot compete well with the rest of its counterparts in Nigeria because of so many teething problems such as lack of facilities, obsolete equipment, inadequate training, poor finance and government interference. As a result, this research will investigate these assertions to ascertain the truth of the matter. Moreover, it will go further to find out whether the application of information and communication technologies has impacted on or enhanced the operation of Broadcast media organizations in Nigeria with respect to Globe FM and Bauchi Radio Corporation.


1.3. Objectives of Study

  1. To ascertain the level of application of ICTs in FRCN Bauchi and BRC Bauchi.
  2. To identify the factors responsible for that level of ICTs application in FRCN and BRC Bauchi.
  3. To assess the implication of the present level of ICTs application in FRCN and BRC Bauchi.
  4. To recommend ways of improving the adoption and enhanced application of ICTs in FRCN and BRC Bauchi

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of application of ICTs in FRCN and BRC Bauchi?
  2. What are the factors responsible for FRCN and BRC Bauchi level of ICTs application?
  3. What is the implication of the present level of ICTs application on FRCN and BRC Bauchi?
  4. What practical measures could be taken to enhance the application of ICTs in FRCN and BRC Bauchi?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of benefit to media outfits that adopt and make use of ICT in their operations. It is hoped that the findings of this work will not only add to the knowledge in the area of human communication system, but also provoke further research in this very interesting area of ICT. The study will also solve the riddle of how far the technological knowhow has improved the power of communication in Bauchi and Nigeria at large. The research work would also serve as a source of reference for media practitioner as it will help improve the standards of media house through new communication technology. The study will also be of benefits for scholars as it is a material for academic exercise. Also, to the information technologists by providing better ways of broadcasting through the available new media and to the researcher of mass communication as it will serve as reference material for them.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to Bauchi city in Bauchi state. The coverage is also limited to Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Bauchi and Bauchi Radio Corporation (BRC) Bauchi. The study respondents are staffs of both radio stations and not other radio stations in the country.


1.7 Operational Definitions of Terms

New Media:

As used in the study is defined as any tools comprising online applications primarily developed to foster user-centered social interaction

Media Technologies:

As used in the study refers to any special device or medium that helps in the procession, distribution, storage, display and reception of information.

Broadcast:

As used in the study means is the act of sending out radio and television signals over a distance, to a large heterogeneous audience by means of airwaves.

Broadcast Media:

As used in the study are electronic media or channel that uses the airwaves to transmit to a large and diverse audience.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT):

As used in the study refers to forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information.

Media Convergence:

As used in the study is the merging of mass communication outlets – print, television, radio, the Internet along with portable and interactive technologies through various digital media platforms

Radio:

As used in the study is the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, especially those carrying sound messages.

Globalization:

As used in the study is the process by which people of the world are unified into a single society through communication.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Limitations of the study

This study was limited to the assessment of new communication and information technology in radio broadcasting: a study of FRCN Bauchi and BRN Bauchiin while other towns in Bauchi state were delimited. This is because the sample frame for the study was drawn from radio stations in the state as explained in chapter three of the study.

This study is concerned with respondents who work in the radio station and have access to the new media and not attempted to study all broadcast and print media in Bauchi state. One of the limitations of the study is that the researcher has to travel down to Bauchi state in order to administer the questionnaire. Also, the researcher faced a bit of difficulty as it took a lot of time before the staffer agreed to answering the questionnaire.


5.2 Summary

The essence of this study is to assess new communication and information technology in radio broadcasting. To achieve this, a statement of problem was formulated with four research questions drawn to guide the research. However for clarity of purpose, radio stations in Bauchi state (FRCN Bauchi and BRN Bauchi), were used as the study units for the research and relevant literatures on ICT and broadcasting were reviewed.

In order to elicit the relevant data, the survey method of research was deployed using the instrument of the questionnaire to formulate questions in line with the research objectives. The study was anchored on the technological determinism theory and the diffusion of innovation theory. The results showed, among other things, that the radio stations have not accepted and adopted the use of some relevant new media technologies, particularly the extensive application of the computer and satellite technology in various areas of broadcasting. It was also revealed that most of the radio personnel are not proficient in the use of the new media technologies. Lack of access and non challant attitude of staffs are one of the possible challenges encountered by the radio stations in the application of the new media technologies as was further revealed by the study.


5.3 Conclusion

The rate of adoption and usage of these ICT in radio broadcast industry under study is not impressive as the stations are yet to be fully acquainted with the technologies, thus, they apply them as moderately as their limited knowledge will allow. According to Amuchie (2001: 48) “in a world that has become a global village any country that stands aloof, whether out of ignorance or lack of appreciation of this basic necessity will certainly contend with backwardness”. This affirms the importance of the new communication and information technology. The study therefore concludes that until the radio stations adopt the new media efficiently and correctly, there will always be a drop of backwardness in their work.


5.4 Recommendations for Specific Stakeholders

  1. Private, state and federal media stations should invest in the procurement of new media technologies that are in tune with modern technological advances.
  2. In order to completely eliminate ICT illiteracy among broadcasters, the government through the federal ministry of education should make IT literacy training a mandatory course in every tertiary institution, and even incorporated into the introductory technology subject of the secondary and primary schools
  3. Broadcast media should provide their staff with training and refresher IT centers in their organization. This would help to refresh and update their knowledge of new media technologies as new innovations emerge.

5.5 Recommendations for Further Studies

Researchers are encouraged to replicate similar studies on other metropolitan areas in Nigeria so as to compare their findings with the results of this study. Future researchers in this area might as well study assessment of new information and communication technology in radio broadcasting because this research is based on two radio stations. Further research can show the lapses between two or more organization and the effect on broadcasting.


Assessment Of New Communication And Information Technology In Radio Broadcasting: A Study Of BRC And FRCN Bauchi.


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