An Assessment Of The Broadcast Media In The Campaign Against Malaria In Rural Community

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

An Assessment Of The Broadcast Media In The Campaign Against Malaria In Rural Community


Abstract


The primary objective of this study is to assess the broadcast media in the campaign against malaria in rural community. The study further discussed the extent at which malaria affect the people in Ethiope-East L.G.A, the extent are the broadcast media carry out campaigns against malaria, the extent do audience respond to malaria campaigns on broadcast media , the demographic factors affect audience awareness of malaria campaigns by broadcast media and the challenges facing the broadcast media in campaigning against malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A. The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected One-hundred and fifty (150) participant who are Ethiope East L.G.A.. Self- structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one-hundred and forty-one (141)responses were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Findings of the study of the reveals that theextent at which malaria affect the people in Ethiope-East L.G.A is high also theextent at which the broadcast media carry out campaigns against malaria is high howbeit The challengesfacing the broadcast media in campaigning against malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A includes lack of sponsors, target audience lacks access to radio and television gadget, audience health belief on appropriate malaria treatment and channel’s poor signal strength .The study however recommended that Media organization need to recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize health misinformation in Nigeria and across Africa thus this should enhance their effectiveness in performing their social responsibility of sensitizing the masses on health matters. More so, Health practitioner should endeavour to volunteer in phone-in-programme as they have core knowledge on the subject and will bring clarity to audience questions on utilization on insecticide treated net.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1. Background to the Study

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomitting and headaches. In severe cases, it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.

The disease is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito’s saliva into a person’s blood (Beare, 2011). The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria (Hartman, 2010). The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans. Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. Methods that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite’s DNA have been developed, but are not widely used in areas where malaria is common due to their cost and complexity (Collins, 2012).

According to Aguwa (2009) malaria kills a child somewhere in the world every minute. It infects approximately 219 million people each year (range 154 – 289 million), with an estimated 660,00 deaths, mostly children in Africa. Ninety percent of malaria deaths occur in Africa, where malaria accounts for about one in six of all childhood deaths. The disease also contributes greatly to anaemia among children a major cause of poor growth and development. (AbouZahr, 2009)

Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with severe anaemia and other illness in the mother and contributes to low birth weight among newborn infants one of the leading risk factors for infant mortality and sub-optimal growth and development, Aguwa (1990). Malaria has serious economic impacts in Africa, slowing economic growth and development and perpetuating the vicious cycle of poverty. Malaria is truly a disease of poverty afflicting primarily the poor who tend to live in malaria-prone rural areas in poorly-constructed dwellings that offer few, if any, barriers against mosquitoes.

Malaria is both preventable and treatable, and effective preventive and curative tools have been developed. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. It begins with a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito, which introduces the protists through saliva into the circulatory system.

In the blood, the protists travel to the liver to mature and reproduce. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. The disease is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broad band around the equator, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. The vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, while P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a generally milder form of malaria that is rarely fatal. The zoonotic species P. knowlesi, prevalent in Southeast Asia, causes malaria in macaques but can also cause severe infections in humans.

Most importantly, a clear and specific mention was given to malaria owning to its level of deadliness and the pace at which the parasite is laying waste to the rural areas of the world most especially the developing countries. This demonstrates that attempts to combat malaria are efforts toward the growth of whatever countries affected. In addressing the problems of issues of public health in general, it has long been seen that the situation of print media and communications cannot be overemphasized.

One of the foremost importance’s of the broadcasting medium or the mass media. In view to Aniebona (2000) state the enlightenment of the segments of the society. The government and the society are aware of the need of wide spread education for both children and adults in other to achieve certain prescribed goals in economic growth, health care, political and social awareness, political stability, self-reliance and national identity, among other things. That broadcasting is a powerful and effective instrument for achieving these national goals has been recognized all over the world. That role will be explored in the sequel.

Education is an important objective in programming for radio and television broadcasting is to educate the listening and viewing audience, given the high rate of illiteracy and low level of education prevalence in many developing countries. Political education, impacting of desirable social values, cultural education, health as well as technological education are the major duties the broadcast media should be conscious of their social responsibility to the society (Gambo, 2008). Information and educational function and other responsibilities of the broadcast media to the society so, it is expected of the media to promote for well-being of the members of the society.

Audience penetration is another important role the broadcast media play in the development of enhancement of knowledge of the members of the society, creating awareness against malaria parasite and in changing their attitude and behavior of people toward the health effect of malaria parasite.

The broadcast media serves as a source of cultural, political, health and other educational and enlightenment programmes for the masses, leading them towards self-actualisation and national development (Ellinas, 2010). Broad media is a medium of communication through which the individuals share the world around them and beyond their immediate environment. Broadcast Media educates citizens on new issues inherent in the society. For example, issues on health, politics, business, current affairs, etc, are aired to create awareness. Media serves as an agent of social mobilisation, people are moved to delivering a certain goal, based on their awareness of their rights and responsibility to the society (Cohen, 2001).

The broadcast media helps health workers expand their audience reach, which is crucial considering the fact that face-to-face channels of communication often require too many human resources and reach only a small number of people in large, underserved rural areas. The broadcast media provides an important link between the rural residents and vital health information.

The broadcast media are effective way to persuade target audiences to adopt new behaviors, or to remind them of critical information. Besides informing the public about malaria: symptoms, treatment, prevention and where to seek help, they can also keep the public updated about vaccination campaigns. The mass media can “empower rural populations to fight major causes of malaria epidemic such as the use of insecticide net, maintaining a clean and healthy environment, can be prevented through vaccination, inform large numbers of people for the benefits of living a healthy life (Hartman, 2010).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne blood disease caused by a Plasmodium parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2015 an estimated 212 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 429,000 people died, mostly children in the African Region. Malaria is diverstating families, made poor; poorer and costs the nation about 140 billion naira annually”. It hampers children’s schooling and social development in general. It is against this background the researcher is willing to examine the role of the broadcast media in the eradication of malaria in Ethiope East Local Government of Delta State.


1.3 Objectives of Study

The basic objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the nature of malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A.
  2. To ascertain the awareness level of broadcast media campaigns against malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A .
  3. To determine how audience response to malaria campaigns on broadcast media in Ethiope East L.G.A.
  4. To find out the demographic factors that affect audience awareness to malaria campaigns by broadcast media in Ethiope East L.G.A?
  5. To find the challenges hindering media campaigns of malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A?

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent is malaria affecting the people in Ethiope-East L.G.A?
  2. To what extent are the broadcast media carrying out campaigns against malaria in Ethiope East
  3. To what extent do audience respond to malaria campaigns on broadcast media in Ethiope East L.G.A?
  4. What demographic factors affect audience awareness of malaria campaigns by broadcast media in Ethiope East L.G.A?
  5. What are the challenges facing the broadcast media in campaigning against malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A?

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is no longer news that malaria epidemic is spreading at a geometric rate in Nigeria in particular and the world in general. The significance of the study cannot be emphasized in that it would help Nigerians in general and residents of Ethiope East Local Government in particular to know the effectiveness of using the broadcast media as a medium of communicating malaria awareness to the citizenry. It would also affords the people audience the opportunity to knowing about what this dreaded and terminal disease since prevention still remains the best way of curtailing the spread of the malaria parasite. The outcome of this study would be of great relevance to the populace and the operators of radio and television stations in the country on how best they can adjust and structure malaria enlightenment campaign programmes on radio and television so as to reach their target audience and also to achieve their aim.

In addition, the study would act as a guide to policy makers, the outcome of the study would also serve as a reference material to the student. The health sector of the economy as it will guide them on the best policy measures to adopt in order to tackle the malaria epidemic in the country.

Future researchers who may desire to carry out research in this area or related aspect will find this materials relevant.


1.6 Scope of the Study

Because of time, geographical locations, fund and other necessary logistics, the study is narrowed down to Ethiope East Local Government of Delta State. The research is narrow down to Ethiope East Local Government because of the incident of malaria-endemic in the area; the disease’s severity can cause mild immunity in a large proportion of the local population. As a result, some people carry the parasites in their bloodstream but do not fall ill. The researcher will visit the Ethiope East Local Government before structuring and administration of questionnaires.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Time Constraint:

During the course of written this research work, the respondent that justify the question took a lot of time before making an effect on the questionnaire paper. The time for the research works is so short to go on extra mile for move data.

Inadequate Data:

This research work will be limited to the volume of information acquired through materials like national dailies, periodic journals, text books speeches, internet materials and write-ups on related subject.

Lack of Adequate Finance:

During the course of writing this research, there is lack of finance to travel from one place to another place for the collection of more data for the research work.

Unco-operate Attitude of Respondents:

As it is unduly know that banks are often busy, so questionnaire administration were not answered very well because majority of the staff were occupied with the customers. This constraints might be regard as the non-response during peak periods.


1.8 Definition of Terms:

Mass Media:

Technology that is intended to reach a mass audience

Malaria:

An intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite which invades the red blood cells and is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions.

Messages:

A verbal, written, or recorded communication sent to or left for a recipient who cannot be contacted directly

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Insecticide:

A substance used for killing the insects

Residents:

A person who lives in a place permanently or long term basis.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The primary objective of this study is to assess the broadcast media in the campaign against malaria in rural community. The study further discussed the extent at which malaria affect the people in Ethiope-East L.G.A, the extent are the broadcast media carry out campaigns against malaria, the extent do audience respond to malaria campaigns on broadcast media , the demographic factors affect audience awareness of malaria campaigns by broadcast media and the challenges facing the broadcast media in campaigning against malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A.

The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected One-hundred and fifty (150) participant who are Ethiope East L.G.A.. Self- structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one-hundred and forty-one (141)responses were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables.


5.2 Conclusion

Malaria has been on the global health agenda for more than six decades now. Despite the appreciable achievement recorded in the global fight against the disease evidenced by reduction in mortality from about one million in the 1990s to 446,000 currently (World Health Organisation, 2018), Nigeria remains the most malaria endemic country in the world. Nigeria alone accounts for 27% of malaria cases globally and 24% of malaria deaths annually. About three out of 10 persons having malaria in the world live in Nigeria and one out of four deaths from malaria globally occurs in Nigeria (Obinna, 2018). The sum of these statistics is that malaria kills 107,040 Nigerians every year or 293 people daily. Nigeria therefore, is important in the global efforts to eliminate malaria.

The Nigerian malaria control programme emphasises the use of insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention as well as Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) for malaria treatment. With malaria becoming resistant to chloroquine and other malaria drugs in many regions of the world, the use of mass media to sensitize people on the need to use ITN has been paramount. The necessity of successful health message transmission to the general public has prompted health communicators, educators, and advocates to research and use social media and other forms of mass media. Recent study has uncovered how people really interact with health information and how they like to interact with health information. This is because one of the fundamental goals of public health is to effectively communicate health information to individuals and communities. Individuals, groups, and societies may all benefit from timely and accurate communication. Individuals’ awareness, knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, abilities, and commitment to behavior change can all be affected by effective health communication.When creating health education campaigns, health educators and professionals frequently use a diverse strategy to bridge the gap between real and desired means of vital health information acquisition. In addition to face-to-face programming, health education campaigns frequently include television advertising, Internet programs, radio broadcasts, and public service announcements.From the result of the study it can b e concluded that:

  1. The extent at which malaria affect the people in Ethiope-East L.G.A is high.
  2. The extent are the broadcast media carry out campaigns against malaria is high.
  3. The extent do audience respond to malaria campaigns on broadcast media is high.
  4. The demographic factors affect audience awareness of malaria campaigns by broadcast media includes location and exposure, occupation, level of education and access to electricity and electronic gadget
  5. The challenges facing the broadcast media in campaigning against malaria in Ethiope East L.G.A includes lack of sponsors, target audience lacks access to radio and television gadget, audience health belief on appropriate malaria treatment and channel’s poor signal strength .

5.3 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Media organization need to recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize health misinformation in Nigeria and across Africa thus this should enhance their effectiveness in performing their social responsibility of sensitizing the masses on health matters.
  2. News and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grassroots, receive updated and accurate information about health matters especially regarding the use of insecticide treated net.
  3. Government and private sector support are also necessary for radio to function effectively in Africa. Sadly, many mass media organizations are underfunded.
  4. Health practitioner should endeavour to volunteer in phone-in-programme as they have core knowledge on the subject and will bring clarity to audience questions
  5. Policy makers and Government should ensure they build the confidence and trust of the masses toward accepting health communication messages via radio and as well ensure that government provides it in large quantity to reach the rural dweller.
  6. Civic societies should endeavor to collaborate with knowledgeable healthcare workers to go on outreach and enlighten the masses on the need to take the health communication messages on malaria shared on med.

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