Assessment On The Availability And Utilization Of Instructional Aids In The Teaching And Learning Of Financial Accounting
1.1 Background of the Study
Education has played a critical role in the survival of individuals and civilizations in all human communities, past and present. A well-planned and well-directed education may gauge a country’s growth capability. As a result, education is seen as a behavioral attribute. It has an impact on one’s talents, attitudes, beliefs, reasoning ability, knowledge, and any other form that helps one to adjust and interact successfully with others. The development of talents allows an individual and a community to grow toward the fulfillment of the individual’s destiny.
Financial accounting as one of the subject taught in Nigeria senior secondary education is based on principles that may be presented using basic teaching materials. The introduction of Financial Accounting in the Senior Secondary School Curriculum intends to expand on the work done in Book-keeping at the Junior Secondary School while also providing the teacher with a framework within which to teach. According to WAEC (2004), bookkeeping and financial accounting are the most popular occupational optional subjects offered by students, making the use of instructional materials vital in any interaction aimed to promote learning. There should be no excuses or justifications for instructors not using educational media. In general, instructional materials are tools used to promote successful teaching and learning. They are used to promote successful communication in order to give the fullest possible teaching learning interaction between the teacher and learners.
According to Franzer, Okebukola, and Jegede (2002), no matter how well-prepared a professionally trained scientific teacher is, he or she will be unable to implement his or her ideas if the educational environment lacks the necessary equipment and instruments. In order to impart instructions, instructional materials act as a conduit between the teacher and the pupils. They may also be used to motivate students throughout the teaching-learning process. It is used to keep kids’ attention and avoid boredom. Teaching resources are extremely crucial, especially for inexperienced teachers. In every element of teaching, teachers rely on instructional resources. They require content to provide context for the subject they are teaching. When new instructors enter the classroom, they typically do not have a foundation of knowledge. Teachers frequently utilize instructional materials to design lessons. These resources are also required by teachers in order to test their pupils’ knowledge. Teachers frequently evaluate pupils by assigning assignments, developing projects, and delivering tests. All of these activities require instructional materials.
According to Asaba (1990), teaching materials are valuable instruments that allow students to see, hear, identify, and enjoy as they learn, employing almost all five sense modalities at the same time. According to Ehiemetator (1990), in the developed world, Financial Accounting theory and practice must first achieve its apex before sufficient textbooks and associated workbooks can be established to ease the teaching and learning of the subject. Adeyanju (1991) defines instructional materials as “information-carrying technology utilized for instructional purposes with the goal of conveying educational information extremely fast and extensively.
Unfortunately, the students in Nigerian are less privileged since most Financial Accounting textbooks and some of the text books are written to meet the needs of the students of develop country. It is a common practice for people to forget instructions easily within a relatively short time. Howbeit, when teaching aids are well chosen and used appropriately the following values are enhanced in learning.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been noticed that some teachers believe that teaching materials have little or no impact on students’ academic achievement in Financial Accounting. As a result, some teachers who should take educational materials seriously believe it is a waste of time. Because of this mindset and erroneous thinking, the use of instructional resources for teaching and learning Financial Accounting has been overlooked. At the same time, not all instructors who are required to employ instructional resources in their classrooms are able to do so for a variety of reasons. Teachers have either lost interest in or ignored instructional resources for teaching Financial Accounting as a result of the aforementioned and other issues. According to Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002), there are insufficient resources in Nigerian secondary schools to teach financial accounting concepts. They went on to claim that most of the ones that are available are in bad condition. Other issues that have been identified in the teaching and learning of Financial Accounting in Senior Secondary Schools: which includes: inadequately qualified instructors in the educational system. Some schools have a shortage of qualified instructors. Inadequate government financing Inadequate time allocation on the timetable for the Financial Accounting cluster of disciplines. Therefore is upon this premise that this study seeks to critically assess the availability and utilization of instructional aids in the teaching and learning of financial accounting in secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to availability and utilization of instructional aids in the teaching and learning of financial accounting in secondary schools.
Specifically, this research set out:
- To investigate the extent at which instructional aids on financial accounting are available in Senior Secondary School
- To determine whether financial accounting teachers utilizes instructional aids during teaching and learning process.
- To whether financial accounting teachers are willing to improvise aids in the absence of school provision.
- To determine the extent to which the use of instructional aids can impact Senior Secondary School students’ academic performance in financial accounting.
1.4 Research Questions
The research is guided by the following questions constructed in line with research objective:
- What is the extent at which instructional aids on financial accounting are available in Senior Secondary School
- Does financial accounting teachers utilizes instructional aids during teaching and learning process?
- Are teachers of financial accounting willing to improvise teaching aids in the absence of school provision?
- What is the extent to which the use of instructional aids can impact Senior Secondary School students academic performance in financial accounting?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The use of instructional aids gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large. T.To the students, the effective use of instructional aids would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. The study would help enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is to assess availability and utilization of instructional aids in the teaching and learning of financial accounting in secondary schools. It will further\ investigate the extent at which instructional aids on financial accounting are available in Senior Secondary School, determine whether financial accounting teachers utilizes instructional aids during teaching and learning process, determine whether financial accounting teachers are willing to improvise aids in the absence of school provision and determine the extent to which the use of instructional aids can impact Senior Secondary School students’ academic performance in financial accounting. The study is however delimited to Senior Secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government in Enugu State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only Senior Secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government in Enugu State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other Senior Secondary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.8 Definition of Terms
These are materials objects that aid teaching and learning more meaningful teachers use them to explain, illustrate and simplify concepts and ideas.
These are materials designed provided genuinely for the purpose of instructional usage overhead projectors, charts, textbooks, slides e.t.c
It is the recording of day-to-day business transactions in a systematic manner.
Learning is relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of exposure to conditions in the environment. It is also defined as acquiring knowledge or skills gained through study or by being taught (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).
Assessment On The Availability And Utilization Of Instructional Aids In The Teaching And Learning Of Financial Accounting
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning?
The utilization of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation involves not only the sense of hearing but also the sense of sight and touches, looking at educational practices, the Chinese proverb conclude that.
What should a teacher do to ensure the availability of instructional materials?
The teacher should ensure that the instructional materials to be used are easily available for use before the date of use. It means that the materials should be in store and the teachers should look at it and test it before the day of the lesson.
What are instructional materials or teaching aids?
Everything which the teacher uses in instruction are called instructional materials or teaching aids. Therese materials can be real or substitutes, but have a common goal. They hasten in the transfer of knowledge, skill and values from the teacher to the learners in the teaching-learning process.
How can practical instructional materials simplify the learning process?
The use of practical instructional materials can simplify the learning process to a great extent. In order to ensure an effective teaching learning process, it is important for the teacher to be thoroughly acquainted with the teaching resources and services available to him.