An Assessment Of Audio-Visual Materials Utilization In Teaching / Learning Of Computer Studies In Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

An Assessment Of Audio-Visual Materials Utilization In Teaching / Learning Of Computer Studies In Secondary Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

We live in a time when computers are increasingly being used in a wide range of human endeavors. Computers may help with decision-making, operations control, modeling, simulation, and automated production, among other things(Campbell, 2008). So far, no industrialized nation has been able to make it without the usage of computers (Campbell, 2008). According to Inyama (2006) Computers are utilized in education in a number of ways to assist the knowledge of a wide range of students. The inclusion of computer science in secondary school curriculum has been fought with difficulties. Students’ responses to computer science, particularly in public schools, have been poor over time, and the reason appears to be that teaching materials, particularly audio-visual materials, have not been used or properly utilized during instruction, which is a source of concern to researchers because of the potential effects on students’ achievement in the subject(Donald, 2009). The impacts of the usage of teaching materials, particularly, have been blamed for this problem . When information is offered in a potentially meaningful way, and the information imparted is manufactured or presented in such a way that the bulk of what was taught remains permanent in the learners memory, meaningful learning is most likely to occur(Wariso, 2010). Audio-Visual Aids are defined as “training or instructional resources directed at both the senses of hearing and sight, videos, records, pictures, etc. utilized in classroom instructions, library collections, or the like” by Webster’s Encyclopaedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. Dike (2011) defines the concept as “materials that do not rely exclusively on reading to communicate meaning.” They may offer information through the senses of hearing (audio resources), sight (visual resources), or a combination of the two (multi-sensory resources). Indeed, the diversity of such resources is a distinguishing feature. “The phrase audio-visual material is widely used to refer to those educational resources that may be utilized to transmit meaning without total dependency on vocal symbols or language,” according to Anzaku (2011). According to the preceding criteria, a text book or reference material does not belong in this category of instructional resources, but a book illustration does. Dramatizing an event or a method, or creating a diorama, are examples of audio-visual components that are in the nature of process and experience(Frank, 2012). Some audio-visual resources, such as movies, require the use of special technology to unlock their latent value (Francis,2011). Some items, such as an exhibit or a study print, are not required. In general usage, this phrase refers to both physical objects and operations such as field excursions. Anzaku went on to say that audio-visual materials include both materials and equipment, that materials are considered a system, or a body of content with potential value when put to work, and that equipment or instructions, also known as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. It is impossible to overstate the value of audio-visual resources in the teaching and learning process(Dike, 2011). Some of the functions of audio-visual materials are listed below;

  • Extending your knowledge.
  • Encouraging engagement is one of the most important things you can do. Individualizes instructions, stimulates interest It may be used as a source of information.
  • Making leaning a habit Sense experience as a foundation for learning
  • Highlighting the significance of audiovisual content.

According to Isaac (2012), audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because the normal learner gains understanding in terms of multiple impressions recorded through the eye, ear, touch, and other series in terms of the functions of his preceptor mechanisms. This is to suggest that audio-visual materials are the means by which that function can be performed. It does not occur in isolation, but rather as part of a balancing pattern including any preceptor mechanisms excited by external stimuli (Swank, 2011). Considering the importance of visual materials in learning, it is believed that roughly 40% of our notions are based on visual experience, 25% on auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% on miscellaneous organic feeling, and 3% on taste and smell. The importance of audio-visual resources in the teaching and learning processes becomes evident with the following argument(Samuel, 2011). This is because they combine the contributions of all five senses to achieve 100 percent clarity. Slides, videos, filmstrips, and projectors can be used to bring the culture and climate of different nations into the classroom. This is significant because, as Dike (1993) points out, “once the phenomena is pictured, the picture and information become very distinct and permanent.” “One image is worth a thousand words,” said a Chinese philosopher in the twentieth century, agreeing with this claim. Encourage Students to Participate. According to Natoli (2011), said “audio-visual materials provide abundant chances for students to build communication skills while actively engaged in addressing relevant challenges.” In other words, pupils will enjoy and learn more if they are involved in meaningful and enjoyable activities. For instance, integrating students in bulletin board display will improve their color selection and increase their knowledge of the idea in issue, or when they join the teacher in dramatization of an event or process. “Learning takes happen successfully when the instructor sets out to generate learning situations in which a kid would learn due of his natural reactions to the offered resources,” Katherine (2009) writes. During the learning process, the instructor must create a learning environment that satisfies the learner’s natural reaction, which is accomplished through the use of instructional aids. The learner’s attention is captured, his curiosity is piqued, and he is ready to learn. A pleasant, tolerant group atmosphere is vital in any learning scenario, especially those resources that compel students to confess their ignorance and confront their fellow students, (Fawcett, 1994). Learning is enhanced when there is an atmosphere of acceptance for learning.

Individualized Teaching: According to A. Lestage (2009), audio-visual elements may be used to personalize instruction. He claims that this is feasible because of programmed learning and cassettes, which allow the student to study at his own speed and work independently. Furthermore, according to Dike (1993), the machine allows the teacher to focus on individual children because standard drills are no longer necessary. Another option to personalize education is for students to create their own materials.

Making learning permanent: According to Gopal (2010), “audio-visual approaches do seem to promote the acquisition, retention, and recall of lessons acquired, because they tend to generate the maximal reaction of the complete organism to the settings in which learning is done.” And perceptual materials naturally correlate with each individual’s particular experiential history. (Natoli, 2011) emphasized the importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes because “having seen something, most people remember it for whatever that item was, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a single mention and may be freely discussed.” Students forget due of a lack of motivation and opportunity to apply what they have learned later on, according to Dike N.M (2011). According to Natoli (2011), “What I hear, I forget, What I see, I remember, and What I do, I know.” As a result, it’s critical to look at the consequences of using audio-visual resources on students’ computer education accomplishment.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The worrying state of junior secondary school students’ computer studies accomplishment may be linked to a lack of interest on the side of the students as a result of the instructor Eze’s lack of use of audio-visual resources (2012). Without audio-visual assistance, students do not recall or understand what they are taught for lengthy periods of time. Despite the significant good impact of educational aids on teaching methods, instructors continue to rely only on the traditional method to instruction, which is neither based on sense experience nor extends their experience (Okafor, 2011). Above all, such knowledge cannot be retained indefinitely. However, there is evidence of limited use and availability of audio-visual resources in schools, which has resulted in students’ lack of interest, attention, and active engagement in the teaching and learning process, which may be to blame for students’ poor academic performance in general (Ugwu, 2010). As a result, they have been unable to make a significant influence on computer education success. The question today is whether the use of audio-visual elements can effectively boost students’ computer science achievement.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study was to see how using audio-visual materials affected students’ computer science achievement.

Specifically, it aims to determine:

  1. The effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students achievement in computer science.
  2. The influence of audio-visual materials on male and female students’ computer science achievement.
  3. The impact of technique and gender on computer science student success.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students achievement in computer science?
  2. What is the level of influence of audio-visual materials on male and female students’ computer science achievement?
  3. How do technique and gender impact computer science student success?

1.5 Scope of the Study

The purpose of the study is to look at the impact of using audio-visual materials on students’ computer science achievement. Only junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State were included in the research. The study will also look into the impact of audio-visual elements on male and female students’ computer science achievement.


1.4 Significance of the Study

Science educators have been concerned about finding an acceptable, relevant, and appropriate method of education for teaching and studying computer science. The advancements and improvements in computer-assisted learning processes have led to the identification of several positive aspects of the usage of audio-visual materials. Following the identification of the barriers to maximizing the use of audio-visual resources in schools, efforts will be undertaken to reduce the impact of the barriers and promote adequate usage of the available resources. The findings of this study will be made available to computer education instructors in the school system via workshops and seminars so that they may effectively use the strategies in the classroom. The findings will help teachers decide whether or not to divide teaching materials and assistance for male and female students.


1.6 Hypothesis of the Study

At a 0.05 alpha level, the following null hypotheses were tested.

  • HO1: The mean accomplishment scores of pupils taught on a computer using audio-visual materials and those taught using a traditional teaching technique are not significantly different.
  • HO2: There is no significant difference in mean accomplishment between male and female students who are taught utilizing audio-visual materials on a computer.
  • HO3: In computer education, there is no substantial interaction between gender and technique on students’ mean achievement. At a 0.05 alpha level, the following null hypotheses were tested.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Why use audio-visual resources in teaching and learning?

Studies (Ode, 2014; Adamu, Ibrahim, Adamu & Ibrahim, 2018) have shown that the use of audio-visual resources improves effectiveness in learning in general and reading in particular because it provides opportunities for modelling, observation and feedback during the course of instruction.

What is audio-visual?

Adamu et al (2018) defined audio-visual as the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, sound and video, into an integrated multisensory interactive application to convey a message or information to an audience.

Can social media be used as audio-visual teaching resources in Gambia?

This use of social media tools as audio-visual teaching resources is affordable and timely because of the proliferation of smart phones and other internet enabled devices in Gambian classrooms.

Are audio and video still used to support learning?

Both audio and video have been used to support learning for some time, but as new technologies have become available and the cost of making media resources has dropped, it is now possible for individual educators to capture their own audio and video using every day, accessible technology. 

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