Assessment On Analysis Of Water Pollution By Phosphate

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Chemistry

Assessment On Analysis Of Water Pollution By Phosphate


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction And Literature Review

Phosphorus is usually present in natural water as phosphate and is an essential element of life, phosphate can come from fertilizers, human or animal wastes, soaps or detergents and industrial waste.[1] When too much phosphorus becomes available, plant grows rapidly.[1] Phosphate that enter a stream may cause algae to multiply and grow quickly, this may result in an algae bloom. Algae bloom are thick layers of green slime that cover the surface of ponds or slow moving stream, algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organisms.[1]

They cause a decrease in the dissolved oxygen level of the water, by  preventing waves and surface of the water from coming into contact with the air which provides the main source of oxygen for the water.[2] Their dark colour absorbs more heat energy from sunlight causing the water temperature to rise.[2] Plants which grow fast, die fast and sink to the bottom, of the water body; are decomposed by bacteria increasing the biological oxygen demand (BOD). All these factors combined to cause oxygen level in the water to decrease rapidly. This can result in fish kill and the death of many aquatic organism.[2]


Aims of Study

Ihiala local government and Uli town could be said to be a lowland area and a non-industrialized area, but the establishment of the Anambra State University has brought about rapid development as well as population explosion

As a result, it has been suspected that there are certain activities that may bring pollution in the source of water in Ihiala and Uli town e.g. phosphate pollution. However, it becomes imperative and important to assess these major sources of water pollution by phosphate (Atamiri river) in anambra State and to know the level of their pollution either they are good for the domestic purpose or not, and how they could be subjected to the treatment so as to avert the various adverse health implications.

It is very important to analyse solvent water because it contain a large number of phosphate or pollutant which are necessary to be checked before the water is used for any sperciic purpose.


Water

Water is a major chemical component of the earths surface. It is the only liquid that most organism ever encounter.
We alternately take it for granted because of its ubiquity and blend nature or marvel at its unusual and fascinating properties. At the centre of this fascination is the role of water as the medium of life (Garret and Gresham and Gresham 1999) over 90% of the weight of any cell is composed of water and all the metabolic processes or reactions associated are based on it (Nester et. al., 1998) over 90% of the weight of any cell is composed of water and all the metabolic processes or reaction associated are based on it (Nester et. al., 1998).

Water is containing hydrogen, oxygen with a variety of dissolved and suspended substance. Water must therefore be analysed and assessed to determine its physiological and technological acceptability for intended purposes


1.1 Water Pollution

Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses it.[1] When humans drink polluted water, it often has serious effects on their health. Water pollution can also make water unsuitable for the desired use.[1]

Phosphates are major source of pollution in lakes, stream and high phosphate level support over-production of algae and water weeds.[2] However many of us have misconception regarding source of polluting phosphate and many home owners unknowingly contribute to the problem lawn and garden fertilizers often are implicated as the major source of phosphate pollution. However when phosphate are applied to soil, they quickly bind to soil particles. Soil bound phosphate contribute to pollution only when soil erosion occurs.[3]


1.2 Sources of Water Pollution

Water pollution is usually caused by human activities, different human sources add to the pollution of water. There are two major of sources.

Point sources are sources that discharge pollutants at specific locations through pipeline or sewers into the surface water example factories, sewage treatment plants, underground mines, oil wells, oil tankers and agriculture.[5]
Non point sources are sources that can not be traced to a single site of discharge example acid deposition from the air, traffic  pollutant that are spread through rivers and pollutant that enter the water through ground water. Non point pollution is hard to control because the perpetrators can not be traced.[5]


1.3 Effects of Phosphate on Water

Phosphate plays an important role in cell activities. It has been shown that phosphate regulates water transport and glucose metabolism.[5] An increase in phosphate concentration is capable of causing a rise in oxidative metabolism in water body. Phosphate is an important ingredient in many soaps and detergent due to its powerful cleaning activities.[5]

Phosphate emits a bad odour, it makes swimming difficult and more complicated water for drinking. Phosphate ion in water can definitely cause serious health problem in infant under 6 months of age when phosphate water is used to mix infant formula.[5] The excess phosphate can interfere with the ability of the protein (hemoglobin) to carry oxygen in babies blood.[5] This can cause babies to suffocate even though their lungs are receiving sufficient oxygen.

Uses of Phosphate

  • Use as NPK fertilizer
  • Used as binder
  • Used as indicator of pollution
  • Used as bloom, etc

Algae Bloom

  • Phosphate enter stream may cause algae to multiply and grow quickly. This may result in an algae bloom
  • Algae bloom are thick layers of green slime that cover the surface of pond or slow moving stream.
  • Algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organism.
  • They cause a decrease in the dissolved oxygen level of the water
  • They prevent waves and the surface of the water from coming into contact with air which provides the main source of oxygen for the water.
  • Total phosphate is used as an indicator of pollution from run-off in agricultural areas or domestic sewage.

Chapter Four


Discussion

A result of water pollution by phosphate analysis was observed as sign of yellow precipitate (ppt) which shows the presence of phosphate in detergent, this result shows the high rate of phosphate pollution in water. However, the presence of phosphate in water results a high rate of algae bloom which cause water pollution in environment and was advised to stop or band industry that produces or manufacture phosphate detergent which lead to water pollution and causes the death of humans, aquatic animals and over production of algae bloom. Moreover, the pollution of phosphate concentration reported on Atamiri river and average phosphate concentration determine in atamiri river was found to be higher. Finally, this study was carried out to know how phosphate contributed in causing water pollution which was identified as the main agent or pollutant that causes water pollution.

It is observed that when repeating ,the experiment in different detergent like Ariel, Omo, Bimbo, Jumbo, etc. you will equally observed the same yellow precipitate showing the presence of phosphate in water.

Total phosphate concentration guideline limits for surface water were compared with mean concentration of phosphate in water sample. For this analysis. Result was shown that water has a highest phosphate level and waters were deemed to be pollution water, basically result shows that detergent contains too much phosphate. In this case, the plant capacity must be developed and waste water must be discharge after proper purification, therefore discharge level of detergent of domestic waste water and industrial waste water must be decreased and also possible detergent with low phosphate content may be used.

The pollution by phosphate concentration report by me on Atamiri rivers in Ihiala local government area of Anambra State south-east, the Average phosphate concentration determined in Atamiri river was found to be higher. Finally, phosphorous pollution level of rivers also affected by soil compost. Eutrophication is a danger for Atamiri river.


Conclusion

In conclusion we understand that water pollution by phosphate are the major source of pollution in river, stream and lakes.

Moreover, result identify that high phosphate level support over production of algae and water weed. However, phosphate plays an important role in cell activities which regulates water transport and glucose metabolism, therefore an increase in phosphate concentration is capable of causing a rise in oxidation metabolism.
In chapter one, we understand that phosphate is an important ingredient in many soaps and detergent due to its powerful cleaning activities.

In further study, algae bloom can also be devastating to fish in river and lakes by restricting their supply of oxygen.
In chapter one, we equally know that phosphate ion in water scan definitely cause serious health problems in infant under 6months of age however, when phosphate londan water is used to mix infant formular.

The excess phosphate can interfere with the ability of the protein (hemoglobin) to carry oxygen in babies in the babies blood. This can cause babies to suffocate.

We understand in chapter two that silver nitrate, ammonia, water and detergent are the material used to determine the presence of phosphate in water.

Experiments show that that water samples were taken from Atamiri river for determining the presence of phosphate in water and during preparation, water samples were measured 100ml and put in 100cm3 of beaker. We also known that 4.25% w/v of silver nitrate was measured and weighed on analytical balance for analysis of water pollution by phosphate.

Experiment 2 shows us an observation on how to determine algae growing in stagnant water that contain detergent.
In basic conclusion, we all have a part in protecting our water, one of colorado’s most valuable resources.

Water pollution is detected in laboratories where small sample of water are analyzed for different contaminants, living organisms such as fish can also be used for the detection of water pollution.

Moreover, changes in their behavior or growth show us that the water they live in is polluted.


Assessment On Analysis Of Water Pollution By Phosphate


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Assessment On Analysis Of Water Pollution By Phosphate


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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the importance of phosphate in water pollution?

They prevent waves and the surface of the water from coming into contact with air which provides the main source of oxygen for the water. Total phosphate is used as an indicator of pollution from run-off in agricultural areas or domestic sewage.

How does phosphate concentration affect oxidative metabolism in water?

An increase in phosphate concentration is capable of causing a rise in oxidative metabolism in water body. Phosphate is an important ingredient in many soaps and detergent due to its powerful cleaning activities.

What are the effects of phosphate in streams?

Phosphate that enter a stream may cause algae to multiply and grow quickly, this may result in an algae bloom. Algae bloom are thick layers of green slime that cover the surface of ponds or slow moving stream, algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organisms. 

What is the source of phosphorus?

Phosphorus is usually present in natural water as phosphate and is an essential element of life, phosphate can come from fertilizers, human or animal wastes, soaps or detergents and industrial waste. When too much phosphorus becomes available, plant grows rapidly. 

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