Assessing The Use Of Motivation To Improve The Interests And Reading Skills Among Secondary School Students In Ikeja, Lagos

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Assessing The Use Of Motivation To Improve The Interests And Reading Skills Among Secondary School Students In Ikeja, Lagos


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the use of motivation to improve the interests and reading skills among secondary school students in Ikeja, Lagos State. The study was carried to find out the attitude of students towards the acquisition of reading skills in secondary schools, ascertain whether the use of motivation can stimulate and sustain students’ interest towards reading, determine whether the use of motivation can enhance students’ reading skills in secondary schools and find out the extent teachers adopt the motivation approach to enhance students’ reading skill. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises Juinor secondary school students of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents while 150 were received and validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the nature of students attitude towards the acquisition of reading skills in secondary schools is negative. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the use of motivation enhance students’ reading skills in secondary schools. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that teachers should make the classroom an enjoyable place to stimulate students and increase their confidence, spontaneity and self- stimulation. Teachers need to pay attention to students’ interests and their requirements. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Reading skill is very significant for the students and enables them to combine words and phrases to construct meaning (Houghton, 2015). According to Arulmoly and Branavan (2017), reading skill means perceiving the vocabularies used in a written text and making a relationship between them to achieve a comprehensive understanding. Reading comprehension requires the supplementary of other skills such as vocabulary and decoding of the talents (Logan, Medford & Hughes, 2014). One of the critical capabilities of language is reading comprehension and students need to comprehend in reading passages to be successful in their academic life (Seymour & Walsh, 2016). According to Takahashi (2018), the ability of students to read a comprehension increases their ability to understand the meaning of scripts. The recognition of the message comes from the communication between written words and how they activate knowledge outside the text/message (Kuşdemir & Bulut, 2018).
Reading is a complex skill because it requires other abilities such as vocabulary and decoding skills (Cerasoli & Ford, 2014). One of the crucial elements that can influence analysis understanding is the motivation (Rehman, Bilal, Sheikh, Bibi & Nawaz, 2014). There is a correlation between reading inspiration and understanding a comprehension (Dakhi & Damanik, 2018). According to Suryasa, Prayoga and Werdistira (2017), motivation of students positively influences their interest and ability in reading a comprehension.

According to Tokan and Imakulata (2019), reading depends on the ability to understand words fast. In situations where the word understanding is hard, learners take much of their processing ability to read specific terms that interferes with their ability to comprehend what they are reading (Logan, Medford & Hughes, 2014). Learners need to learn to analyze a text for comprehending before they can read it on their own (Gbollie & Keamu, 2017), Following instructions in a comprehension consists of learners answering instructors’ questions and writing answers to questions on their own and this is capable to modify their understanding (Hong & Ganapathy, 2017). The method of reading comprehension comprises of three models; the bottomup method, the top-down method and the interactive method (Ahmadi, 2017). The bottom-up approach concentrates much on the smaller elements of a text, such as its letters, words, phrases and sentences (Abdurrahman & Garba, 2018). In the bottom-up method, the learners understand the meaning of the phrase in comprehension when they correctly decode the linguistic elements and understand the connection between words (Fridkin, 2018).

Besides, the top-down method is the idea of reading as a psycholinguistic predicting game in which the reader uses his/her prior knowledge or written schemata to join with a text and to communicate these to new or unexpected materials found in the text to recognize it (Karanja, 2015). In the topdown method, learners do not want to read every word of a text, but they focus on guessing the next group of words (Coskun, 2014). The interactive method is a process based on information from many sources such as syntactic, semantic knowledge and schemata (Kaur, 2016). According to Takahashi (2018), the interactive method leads to the most efficient processing of texts and helps the language learners in gaining strong reading skills. According to Ahmadi (2017), Takaloo and Ahmadi (2017), Houghton (2015), Arulmoly and Branavan (2017) and Takahashi (2018), the interest in reading is influenced by motivations.

Motivation of the students is critical to increasing their learning capabilities (Abdurrahman & Garba, 2018). Settingexpectations and making reasonable demands encourages students to participate, but sometimes students need an extra push to be in the right direction(Turner, Dubeck,Halliday, Inyega, Wolf & Brooker, 2017). Offering students incentives makes learning fun and motivates them (Gerhart & Fang, 2015). According to Fitzgerald and Danner (2016), rewarding give students a sense of accomplishment and encourage them to work with a goal in mind. One way of enhancing responsibilities of students is involving them in the classroom. (Cerasoli & Ford, 2014). According to Ahmed (2016), engaging students to participate in the classes increases their responsibility of tidying up or decorating the classroom. The motivated students work toward achieving a given obligation and further rebuild confidence in them to compete with others (Logan, Medford & Hughes, 2014).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A negative interest and motivation on reading has been found to be a contributing factor towards under-performance in school. The negative attitude in reading has created a lot of fear and anxiety among students who continue to perform dismally as they lack the interest and motivation, curiosity and patience needed for learning and performing related tasks concerning to reading. Studies on students performances in reading have mostly pointed to the fact that students attitude is a major contributor yet has received very little attention if any. There is therefore a need to study the effect of student attitudes and beliefs as is the integral part of sociocognitive learning which affect the learning outcomes (Burstein, 1992). Students opinions and beliefs regarding reading, how much they like it, how important they think it is, how difficult they perceive it is and the future expectations can be understood as facets of students motivation on reading and which determine their success in reading (Aiken, 2002). In the light of the above, this study seek to examine the use of motivation to improve the interests and reading skills.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study to examine he use of motivation to improve the interests and reading skills. The study will specifically focus on the aims listed below;

  1. Find out the attitude of students towards the acquisition of reading skills in secondary schools.
  2. Ascertain whether the use of motivation can stimulate and sustain students’ interest towards reading.
  3. Determine whether the use of motivation can enhance students’ reading skills in secondary schools.
  4. Find out the extent teachers adopt the motivation approach to enhance students’ reading skill.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide and help the researcher to achieve the specified objective of this study:

  1. What is the nature of students attitude towards the acquisition of reading skills in secondary schools?
  2. Can the use of motivation stimulate and sustain students’ interest towards reading?
  3. Can the use of motivation enhance students’ reading skills in secondary schools?
  4. What is the extent teachers adopt the motivation approach to enhance students’ reading skill?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use of motivation can not improve students interest towards reading skills.
  • Ha: The use of motivation can improve students interest towards reading skills.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help the teacher to understand the learners better so as to capture their attention and change their perceptions towards reading, as well as stimulate their interest and motivate them better. Motivation, reinforcement and relevant instructional strategies by the teachers, might help the learners get directions on what is expected.

Through this study, the learners would understand themselves and that their reading skill is a consequence of their actions, attitudes and effort which they can control for their successful learning and improvement in reading.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study generally focus on assessing the use of motivation to improve the interests and reading skills among secondary school students. The study will cover the entire secondary school students of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Reading skill

Reading skill means perceiving the vocabularies used in a written text and making a relationship between them to achieve a comprehensive understanding.

Motivation

“Motivation” is commonly defined as what explains why people or animals initiate, continue or terminate a certain behavior at a particular time. Motivational states come in various degrees of strength.

Reading Motivation

Reading motivation is the enormous quantity of motivation that learners should consider their positive or negative idea about reading.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the use of motivation to improve the interests and reading skills among secondary school students in Ikeja, Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the use of motivation to improve the interests and reading skills among secondary school students in Ikeja, Lagos State. The study was specifically carried out to find out the attitude of students towards the acquisition of reading skills in secondary schools, ascertain whether the use of motivation can stimulate and sustain students’ interest towards reading, determine whether the use of motivation can enhance students’ reading skills in secondary schools and find out the extent teachers adopt the motivation approach to enhance students’ reading skill.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were Juinor secondary school students of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, LagosState.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The nature of students attitude towards the acquisition of reading skills in secondary schools is negative.
  2. The use of motivation stimulate and sustain students’ interest towards reading.
  3. The use of motivation enhance students’ reading skills in secondary schools.
  4. The extent teachers adopt the motivation approach to enhance students’ reading skill is low.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Teachers should make the classroom an enjoyable place to stimulate students and increase their confidence, spontaneity and self- stimulation. Teachers need to pay attention to students’ interests and their requirements.
  2. Teachers need to integrate fun in reading and also provide an appropriate environment that will increase students’ motivation.
  3. Teacher can permit the students to choose the materials that are yielded based on their needs and interests.
  4. Teachers need to allocate more time for reading of the scripts. Likewise, it is recommended that learners need to be motivated in learning and developing their knowledge through focus on the comprehension skills.
  5. Teachers need to go beyond their traditional roles by providing opportunities for their students to become motivated and develop their reading comprehension proficiency.

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