Aspects Of Question Formation In Kaninkon Language

Project and Seminar Material for Linguistics and Communication

Aspects Of Question Formation In Kaninkon Language


Chapter One


The Kaninkon Language And It Speakers

General Introduction

This research work is on an aspect of the syntax of Kaninkon language, precisely, question formation. By syntax we mean the branch of linguistics analysis which involves the arrangement of words to form grammatical sentences in a rule governed way. In Linguistics, the term syntax is also used to refer directly to the rules and principle that govern the sentence structure of any individual language.

Modern research in syntax attempts to describe language in terms of such rule. Many professionals in this discipline attempt to find general rules that apply to all natural language. The tern syntax is also sometimes used to refer to the rules governing the behaviour of mathematical systems, such as logic, artificial formal languages, and computer programming languages.

It should be noted that there are many aspects of syntax but this research work will specifically focus on the Question formation in Kaninkon language. According to Stockwell (1977:1) “to study aspect of how sentence are formed and how they are understood”. Question formation is one of the syntactic processes and it can be grouped under the linguistic level of syntax.

This chapter will discuss the general background of Kaninkon speakers (Origin and Migration), historical background, socio-cultural profile, the genetic classification and geographical location of Kaninkon language. The chapter also consists of the scope and organization of study, research methodology, and the brief review of the chosen framework.


1.1 Historical Background

The Kaninkon is said to have originated from Kastina. They may probably descend from the Kaita family in the present day of Kastina state. This might have been Made know from oral history passed down from their fore-fathers. Evidence of this origin can be noticed from the characteristic of both the Kaninkon and the Hausa of Kastina. One such feature is the tribal marks. Another is the places earmarked for burial (grave-yards). The mode of burial was the same, both decorated the perimeter of the grave with broken pots. Names were also similar for example:- Moro and Umaru; Hammadu and Muhammadu; Riju and Aliyu amongst others – from the fore-going, we can deduce some similarities with the Kaita of Katsina state.

The initial migration involved many clans but probably due to inter clan conflicts only two clans constitute the Kaninkon. These are Turan and Ngbechio. It is believed that those who migrated from Kastina finally settle in a place called Gwok in the present day Gwong (Kagoma). In the course of the conflict already mentioned other clams migrated further leaving behind the two clans may constitute the other neighbouring people group with which the Kaninkon share similarities in language and culture.

Present day Kaninkon is made up of two clans; Ngbechio to the North and Taran to the South. Turan the ancestor of the southern clan had two wives who bore him three sons. One of the wives had two sons, while the other had only one. Kaninkon was the older of two sons from one of the wives. Ngaichem (Gerti) was his younger brother. The only son to the other wife was Kper (Amere)

Contact with outside word (Modernization with Hausa and Fulani). Pre-colonial from 1980 to date (i.e contact with colonial officers) prior to the gihadest moment of early 1880 century. The Kaninkon people had one of the most powerful kingdom that spread across what is today know as southern Kaduna. The kingdom was bounded to the North only by them; then Kajuri Kingdom and much later by is sister kingdom of (Sanga) to the east. The powerful kingdom was the Kaninkon, want had one no as the Roro kingdom, it should been noted that at the arrival o the coloniest, the Sanga was still classify as in originating from Kaninkon, late written history has it was the Jema’a emirate, that was eventually established by the colonial administration in 1911 derived is name from Roro Kingdom. The Kaninkon community is found in Jama’a local government of Kaduna state.

Furthermore, according to oral history occurred when a man of Kaninkon (Bakin Kogi) a Kaninkon village fell out with is brother who was the head of the community. He move further not and settle down at the foot of what was later now Daroro hill; the man name was Roro as feet who have it group and status secure by his friendship with the more powerful Kajuru chief further north.

At about the same time he recorded in history of Jama’a emirate and Malam Usman of Kebi settle among the Domanic Fulani and Kajuru, Malam Usman itself a Fulani began to convent the nomatic Fulani of Kaguru into Islam and became their teacher this event took place in the later part of 1700s. the chief of Kajuru had a Fulani wife when the Fulani come of about the dynasy of Seria, the chief of Kajuru become laked, there after Usman fled to Sanga with some of his followers. Usman refuse to pay the normal rebute he and his followers had hitherto been paying to the chief of Kajuru.

The result is that the chief of Kajuru kept harassing Usman and his followers in one of these skirmishes the chief of Kajuru had his daughter Taiba kidnapped by Usman who refused ramson.

In insistence, he wanted her for a wife, the wise intervention of the emir of Seria settle the matter. The emir got Usman who looked up to him for authority to retune chief of Kajuru daughter. Then the chief was asked to give out his daughter to Malam Usman as a wife. This did not only ensure between Usman and the chief of Kaninkon and Sanga because the Kaninkon people were pick with Kajuru on hand against Usman and the Sanga on the other. The Sanga been and elienated kin of the Kaninkon. However Usman had to abandon the Sanga.

Later Usman approached the emir of Seria (and not Danfodio) for a staff of office on the behalf of the Fulani that were settle with Roro (Jema’a na Roro) the aims of the emirate was to be called when he was subsequently established. This event took place around 1810. Not long after this, the Jidadish settle the balance in the region. The chief of Kajuru Kingdom decrime as well as that of Sanga and Roro. The gazatee state, the panga retire and build the village of Nildem. This village is about seven kilometers. The Kaninkon along side, sister community found a number of battle against the Fulani, the Kaninkon had the best defensive position (as any one with the knowledge of the geography of the area with).

In 1833, the Kaninkon defected Jama’a at the feet of Daruru Hill also in 1887 the Kaninkon defeated the Fulani. The last battle with the Fulani of Jama’a was in about 1903. The Kaninkon people are among the indigenous tribes of Jema’a local government, Kafanchan area in particular. They are indigenous to the area they occupy. The area they occupy traditionally has borders with kagoro to the North – East Baiju to the North, Kagoma to the West Numana and Mada to the South. They are brother with Nindem and Kanufi who are also to the South- East.

Oral tradition indicates that the Kaninkon people came to their present abode from Kastina. This appears to be the Katsina of Benue area that is (Katsina – alla). The traditional practices of the Kaninkon people (NIKYOB) are very close to those of Numana, Ninzo and Made.

On marriage, baby girls could be bethrobed right from birth, that is, if a girl was born a father could say “this girl will be a wife to my son” and like joke if interest continued this could eventually happen and did happen a lot.

On initiations and age groups there were several stages. The first stage was around the ages of Ten and Fifteen, i.e this stage was also know as “Mahyang” the next stage was circumcision. It was after the circumcision and dodo or “rim” initiation that a male child is now considered a man and could marry.


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