Aspects Of Gunganci Morphology

Project and Seminar Material for Linguistics and Communication

Aspects Of Gunganci Morphology

Table of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

General Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 General Background
  • 1.3 Historical Background
  • 1.4 Sociocultural profile of the Gunganwa People
  • 1.5 Genetic Classification of Gunganci Language
  • 1.6 Scope and Organistions of Study
  • 1.7 Theoretical Framework
  • 1.8 Data Collection and Data Analysis
  • 1.9 Brief Review of the Choosen Framework

Chapter Two

Basic Phonological and Morphological Concepts

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2. Aspects of Gunganci Phonology
  • 2.2.1. Sound Inventory in Gunganci Language
  • 2.2.2. Consonant Sounds
  • 2.2.3. Gunganci Consonant Chart
  • 2.2.4. Vowel Sounds
  • 2.2.5. Gunganci Vowel Chart
  • 2.2.6. Gunbganci Nasal Vowels
  • 2.3 Tone Inventory of Gunganci Language
  • 2.4. Syllable Structure of Gunganci Lanaguage
  • 2.5. Basic Morphological Concepts
  • 2.5.1 Morpheme
  • 2.5.2 Types of Morphem
  • 2.5.3. Tree Morpheme
  • 2.5.4. Lexical Morpheme
  • 2.5.5. Functional Morpheme
  • Conjunction
  • Preposition
  • Pronouns
  • 2.5.6 Bound Morpheme
  • 2.5.7. Derivational Morpheme
  • 2.5.8. Inflectional Morpheme
  • Noun
  • Adjective
  • Base Forms
  • Comparative Forms
  • Superlative Forms
  • 2.6. Structural Position of Morpheme
  • 2.7 Allomorphs
  • 2.8. Language Typology
  • 2.8.1. Isolating Language
  • 2.8.2. Agglutinating Language
  • 2.8.3. Fusional or Inflecting Language
  • 2.9. Sentencial Classification of Morphemes in Gunganci Language

Chapter Three

The Morphology of Gunganci Language

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Lexical Category
  • 3.2.1. Noun
  • 3.2.2. Bisyllabic Nouns
  • 3.2.3 Trisyllabic
  • 3.2.4. Polysyllabic Nouns
  • 3.2.4. Nouns in Gunganci Language
  • 3.2.5 Animate Nouns
  • 3.2.6. Inanimate Nouns
  • 3.2.7. Proper Nouns
  • 3.2.8. Common Nouns
  • 3.3.9. Abstract Noun
  • 3.2.10 Countable Noun
  • 3.2.11 Uncountable Nouns
  • 3.2.12 Function of Nouns in Gunganci Language
  • 3.2.13. Nouns as a Subject
  • 3.2.14. Noun as an Object.
  • 3.3 Pronouns
  • 3.4. Adjective
  • 3.4.1. Function of Adjective in Gunganci Language
  • 3.5. Preposition
  • 3.5.1. Function of Adjective in Gunganci Language
  • 3.6. Verb
  • 3.6.1. Transitive Verb
  • 3.6.2 Intransitive Verb
  • 3.7. Adverb
  • 3.8 Conjunction
  • 3.9. Interjection

Chapter Four

Morphological Processes in Gunganci Language

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Morphological Processes
  • 4.3. Lexical Borrowing
  • 4.4. Compounding
  • 4.5. Reduplication
  • 4.6. Refashioning
  • 4.7. Clipping
  • 4.8. Affixation

Chapter Five

Summary and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2. Summary
  • 5.3. Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One

General Introduction

1.1 Introduction

The chapter introduces us to the general background, historical background, socio-cultural profile and genetic classification of the Gùngáwá people. It also includes the scope and organization of study, theoretical framework, data analysis and a review of the chosen framework.

1.2 General Background

Introduction to the History of Gùngáwá People and Language.

Gùngáwá is an adopted name for the Bàrèshe people by their Hausa neighbors which means Island dwellers because of their nearest to rivers and lakes.

The people call themselves Bàrèshe, Tsureja or Yáúráwa but officially called Gùngáwá. The names of the language are Gùngáwá, Gùngácí.

The Gùngáwá people are mostly found in Northern part of Kebbi State, and around Islands in extreme Sokoto State few of them were also in Niger State especially Kontangora area and Borgu Local Government Area and a recent funding in Kaiama Local Government Area of Kwara State.

1.3 Historical Background

The tribe Gùngáwá or Bàrèshe can be found in the Northern part of Nigeria in Southern Kebbi State (Yàúrí Local Government) few of them are also in Borgu Local Government Area and North of Borgu in Niger State.

The Gùngáwá are mostly concentrated in Kebbi State in Yàúrí Local Government. The Gùngáwá people are the original inhabitants of Yàúrí according to Muazu Bagudu a native of the town.

A source had that the Gùngáwá were decendents of 17th century warrior called Kisira or Kachin who allied himself with the Hausa Soldiers to gain territory in the extreme North who eventually settled with his co-fighters in present Yàúrí town.

Another source told us of their trace to a songay warrior who came from Mali to seek territorial control and their eventual settlement (with his supporters) in Yàúrí and parts of Lopa and Laru (Gùngáwá neighboring areas).

According to Apollos Aagamalafiya, a native of Gùngáwá from Rèkúbọlọ area in Yàúrí belief that the Gùngáwá people came from Kabuwa that they are hunters from Katsina State.

He (Apollos) explained further that some say they are from Shagana, Kambari, Kabbawa or Sarkawa. These are mixed up tribes that constitute the Yàúrí emirate.

As regard this histories, the actual place of origin is not clear, and it remain debatable among Gùngáwá people. Although, the Gùnganci language is closely related with that of the Lopa and Laru people in term of lexical items and Noun Affixes. No matter how related these people might be with the Gùngáwá tribe; however, they (Gùngáwá) still remain divergent in historical root.

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This study starts with an introducing chapter that gives information about the language of study, starting the historical background of Gúngáncí language, where they originated from to settle in their various presents locations, the genetic classification, cultural profile scope and organization of study, data collection and data analysis.

The phonological aspect of the language was considered to give archaic relationship of phonemes to morphological units by looking into the vowels, consonants, tones and syllabic creative’s. We also look into the morphological aspects of Gúngáncí language which is the area of concentration in this essay. The work started by analyzing morphology, morphemes (free and bound morpheme), Allomorphs, and types of free and bound morphemes. It shows the affixal elements to the basic lexical categories.

This research also examined how morphemes are combined by morphological processed such as borrowing, compounding, reduplication refreshing and affixation.

Efforts were made to look at the lexical categories of words ‘morphology’ in Gúngáncí language. The nouns in Gúngáncí occur in classes such as proper, common, animate, inanimate, concrete, abstract, countable and uncountable.

Pronouns in Gúngáncí functions as subject or object of a sentence. This work also covered the verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections in Gúngáncí and gave different examples to illustrate them.


The five chapters of this work have given an insight into the morphology of Gúngáncí language.

From our observation in the course of this work, we would conclude that Gúngáncí is genetically related to the Niger-Kordofinia language family. In the phonological aspect of Gúngáncí , the Gúngáncí vowel chart consist of the oral and the nasal vowels Gúngáncí has twenty three consonants in its system, tone in Gúngáncí language consists of the high, mid and low tones, which are3 contrastive.

The syllabic structure in Gúngáncí done not allow for consonant clusters and we have examples of monosyllabic, bisyllabic and polysyllabic morphemes in Gúngáncí .

In the morphology of Gúngáncí , it has free morphemes otherwise known as free morphemes which are capable of independent existence. The bound morphemes are morphemes that are incapable of independent existence, although, sufficient research has been conducted in the aspects of Gúngáncí morphology; however, this will be inadequate to a researcher’s belief who may want to give further observation and analysis from the foregoing of this work it is also the researchers view that this project would serve as a source of data for such observation and analytical studies.

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