Aspects Of Gunganchi Verb Phrase

Project and Seminar Material for Linguistics and Communication

Aspects Of Gunganchi Verb Phrase


Table of Contents


  • Content Pages
  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

General Background of the Study

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 General background of the language
  • 1.2 Historical background of the speakers
  • 1.3 Socio-cultural background
  • 1.3.1 Occupation
  • 1.3.2 Religion
  • 1.3.3 Administration
  • 1.3.4 Festival
  • 1.3.5 Marriage and burial rites
  • 1.3.5.1 Marriage
  • 1.3.5.2 Burial rites
  • 1.3.6 Culture
  • 1.3.6.1 Clothing
  • 1.3.6.2 Food
  • 1.3.6.3 Naming ceremony
  • 1.3.7 Education
  • 1.3.8 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Genetic classification
  • 1.5 Scope and organization of the study
  • 1.6 Theoretical framework
  • 1.7 Data collection
  • 1.8 Data analysis
  • 1.8.1 X-bar theory
  • 1.8.1.1 Head parameter
  • 1.8.1.2 Move-alpha
  • 1.8.2 Theta theory
  • 1.8.3 Case theory
  • 1.8.3.1 Case in GB theory
  • 1.8.4 Binding theory
  • 1.8.5 Bounding theory
  • 1.8.6 The Government theory
  • 1.8.7 Control theory

Chapter Two

Phonosyntactic Analysis

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Basic phonological concept
  • 2.1.1 Gunganchi consonant system and their distribution
  • 2.1.2 Gunganchi vowel system
  • 2.2 Tone systems in Gunganchi
  • 2.2.1 Level tones
  • 2.2.2 Low tones
  • 2.2.3 Mid tones
  • 2.3 Syllable structure of Gunganchi language
  • 2.3.1 Monosyllabic structure
  • 2.3.2 Di-syllabic structure
  • 2.3.3 Tri-syllabic structure
  • 2.3.4 Quadri syllabic structure
  • 2.4 Lexical categories in Gunganchi
  • 2.4.1 Nouns
  • 2.4.1.1 Proper nouns
  • 2.4.1.2 Common nouns
  • 2.4.1.3 Concrete nouns
  • 2.4.1.4 Abstract nouns
  • 2.4.1.5 Collective nouns
  • 2.4.1.6 Countable nouns
  • 2.4.1.7 Uncountable nouns
  • 2.4.2 Pronouns
  • 2.4.3 Verbs
  • 2.4.4 Adverbs
  • 2.4.5 Adjectives
  • 2.4.6 Prepositions
  • 2.4.7 Conjunctions
  • 2.5 Phrase structure rules
  • 2.5.1 Phrasal categories in Gunganchi
  • 2.5.1.1 Noun phrase
  • 2.5.1.2 Verb phrase
  • 2.5.1.3 Prepositional phrase
  • 2.5.1.4 Adjectival phrase
  • 2.6 Basic word order in Gunganchi
  • 2.7 Sentence types in Gunganchi
  • 2.7.1 Simple sentence
  • 2.7.2 Complex sentence
  • 2.7.3 Compound sentence
  • 2.8 Classification of sentence in Gunganchi
  • 2.8.1 Imperative sentence
  • 2.8.2 Interrogative sentence

Chapter Three

Verb Phrase in Gunganchi

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Verb phrase and head parameter
  • 3.2 Verb phrase and head parameter in Gunganchi
  • 3.3 Structure of the verb phrase
  • 3.3.1 Structure of the Gunganchi verb phrase
  • 3.4 Classes of verbs
  • 3.4.1 Transitive verbs in Gunganchi
  • 3.4.2 Intransitive verbs in Gunganchi
  • 3.5 Verbs with sentential complements
  • 3.6 Verbs with sentential complements in Gunganchi
  • 3.7 Verb serialization
  • 3.8 Serial verbs in Gunganchi
  • 3.9 Aspects in Gunganchi language
  • 3.9.1 Progressive aspective marker
  • 3.9.2 Perfective aspective marker

Chapter Four

Transformational Processes in Gunganchi

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 Transformations
  • 4.2 Question formation
  • 4.2.1 Yes/No question
  • 4.2.2 WH-question
  • 4.2.3 WHO-question
  • 4.2.4 WHAT-question
  • 4.2.5 WHERE-question
  • 4.3 Negation

Chapter Five

Summary, Observation and Conclusion

  • 5.0 Summary
  • 5.1 Observation
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Reference

Chapter One


General Background of the Study

1.0 Introduction

The main focus of this research work is a discussion on the verb phrase of Gunganchi language. This chapter therefore aims at introducing the work by discussing some historical facts about the Gunganchi people and the language itself. Justification for the study as well as the scope of the work is examined in this chapter. The chapter will also give information on the genetic classification of Gunganchi language and then attempt a brief review of our chosen framework, the government and binding theory.


1.1 General Background of the Language

Kebbi State, the home of Argungu international fishing and cultural festival came into existence as a political entity on the 27th August 1991. It was carved out of the former Sokoto State with its headquarters in Birnin kebbi. From available source given by informant, Kebbi State spreads alluringly over a vast expanse of land of approximately 36.229 square kilometres representing 3.9% of the total land area of Nigeria.

In this wonderful endowed land lives a population of 3,238,628 (2006 census) people bounded by a long winding history and inspired by memories of spectacular accomplishment. At present, the state is made up of four emirates (Gwandu, Argungu, Yauri and Zuru) which are further divided into 21 local government areas: Birnin Kebbi, Ngaske, Yauri, Sakabo, Zuru, Dandi etc.

Kebbi State has diverse ethnic groups. The dominant amidst them are: Hausa, Fulani, Kabawa and the Gunganwa. The distributions of these ethnic groups show that the Gunganwa (speakers of Gunganchi) are found in Yauri local government. (Informant)


1.2 Historical Background of the Speakers

The Gunganwa also known as the Bareshe people by their

Hausa neighbours hail from Yauri Local government area of Kebbi State. This local government area has a total population of seventy four thousand nine hundred and sixteen people (74,916). They are only found in Yauri local government and call themselves ‘Guresha amidst’. History has it that they came from an island called “gungun” which means water and “Ganwa” which means people that are surrounded by water.


1.3 Socio – Cultural Background

Every community has its distinct way of life. The way people eat, what they wear, their mode of marriage, etc. differ in various societies. The Gunganchi people don’t have an exception as they also have their own cultural values just like every other community.

Gunganchi as a language is the mother tongue in Yauri local government area of Kebbi State. It has neighbouring tribes like hun – saare, Lopa and Hausa.

1.3.1 Occupation

Gunganchi people are dominantly farmers and pre-dominantly fishermen. They practice both subsistence and commercial form of farming but they major on cultivation of land and growing of crops for the sustainability of their households. They also engage themselves in fishing using cage called “suuru” and they use ‘Hauwuyu’ for farming but now they have started using hoes, cutlasses etc. They farm and fish depending on the season and their major crops are guinea corn, beans, rice and onions. They are also noted for canoe – making.

1.3.2 Religion

Following the 1804 Fulani Jihad, the Gunganchi people are mostly Muslims. They also have few pagans and idol worshippers. According to the informant, research has shown that 70% of the Gunganchi people are Muslims while 29% are traditional worshippers and 1% practice Christianity. Despite these ethnic diversities and religious differences, the Gunganchi people live in peace with one another.

1.3.3 Administration

Gunganchi people adopt the emirate system like their

neighbouring community. Their location is a multi ethnic area consisting of Lopa, Yauri, Laru etc. and the palace of the emir is in Yehwa, but the Gunganchi people are the first settlers in Yauri. Hereditary succession is not adopted in this emirate and the Emir is appointed based on the fact that he must be elderly, famous and respected among the people.

Turbaning is done for the new emir amidst celebration with burukutu (a local drink made from millet). The Emir rules the territory with local chiefs called Sariki. However, the local government chairman holds the executive function of the Yauri Local Government Area and other governmental works are executed by the Kebbi State Government.

1.3.4 Festival

Their major festivals that are celebrated with pomp and pageantry are Idembe which is the millet festival and Anipo festival. During the Anipo festival, animals like goat are sacrificed. These festivals bring all Gunganchi speaking communities together.

1.3.5 Marriage And Burial Rite
1.3.5.1 Marriage

Marriage in Gunganchi community is a bit complex especially for men. In Gunganchi community when a man signals his intention of marriage to a lady, the man’s parents inform the lady’s parents. Before the lady’s parents agree to such proposal, the man must farm for his in-law for an unspecified duration. He farms until the parents of the lady become satisfied. After the farming they formally announce their intension and a date is fixed for the wedding.

On the wedding day the man’s family go with guinea corn because no bride price is needed. The marriage is based on Islamic rites and the marriage ceremony is fun and full of merry making. The Gunganchi people also encourage inter marriage most especially with Hausas.

1.3.5.2 Burial Rites

During a Gunganchi burial ceremony, the corpse is lowered into the ground and covered with leaves. Like most tribes the death of an aged person is celebrated and that of the young person is mourned. Sudden or unusual death is usually investigated and the oracle is consulted to find out the cause of the death. The killer of the deceased is said to be killed by the spirit of the dead. The oracle that are consulted are the Gigo (true God) and Ujigo (god of thunder and iron). This is a traditional rite performed on the dead.

1.3.6 Culture

The Gunganchi people are highly cultural people. This

reflects in their normal ways of life which will be discussed below.

1.3.6.1 Clothing

Before the present day of westernization and civilization the Gunganchi people cloth themselves with animal skin. They make various styles from these animal skins. They now make use of ‘banbariga’ (traditional dress for the man) and loose clothing with local embroidery tied around the woman’s body to wade off the sun. There are also heavy tribal marks on the woman’s face and tattoo on the legs during wedding ceremonies. However some of them still make use of animal skins till date.

1.3.6.2 Food

The Gunganchi people take guinea corn pap as their best food. They like guinea corn that most of them prefer keeping it than selling it in the market. Guinea corn pap is served at occasions like wedding, naming and during other festive periods. Burukutu (local gin) is their favourite drink and is served during their leisure time.

1.3.6.3 Naming Ceremony

When a child is born, he is named after seven days. His hair is shaved and after ten years the child is circumcised.

1.3.7. Education

Before the advent of western education, the people have a way of teaching morals and skills within their community to their children. They hereby teach and impact knowledge to their children right from birth. Hence when western education came it was warmly embraced by the Gunganchi people. However Gunganchi language was also used in teaching Islamic studies to their children.


1.4 Objective of the Study

In this study an attempt is made to identify the following;

  1. The pattern and arrangement of words in Gunganchi language, i.e. word order;
  2. The lexical categories of Gunganchi language
  3. The transformational processes in Gunganchi language
  4. Combination of words to form phrases and sentences in Gunganchi language
  5. Rules that apply to structure of phrase in the language; and
  6.  Classification of verbs in Gunganchi language.

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Summary


This chapter seeks to give an overview of the preceding chapters.

  1. Chapter one basically examined the Gunganchi language, its history and the rich sociolinguistics profile of its speakers. Here, the language was also genetically classified.
  2. Chapter two focused on the introduction to the Gunganchi phonology and syntax. It focused on phonological and syntactic concepts like phrase structure rules, lexical categories, basic word order and sentence types.
  3. Chapter three did a thorough dissection of the Gunganchi language in the light of ‘verb phrase’. The structures of verb phrases were examined. The chapter also discussed verb and their various complements.
  4. Chapter four examined the transformational processes such as question formation and negation.
  5. The fifth chapter gives the summary and conclusion of the allied chapters.

Observation


In the course of this work, it was observed that Gunganchi language attest to both open and close syllable system. This means that words in Gunganchi end with both vowels and consonants.

It was also observed that Gunganchi language falls under the Niger Kordofanian language family. It was also discovered that five of the seven oral vowels in Gunganchi are nasalized.


Conclusion


Thus far, this work has examined the Gunganchi language and its speakers giving a brief historical account of the language and its speakers. Also, their sociolinguistic profile was given a critical assessment with heading like population, religion, festival etc. from where the rich culture of the Gunganchi speakers was exploited. Using Government and Binding theory, this research looked into the Gunganchi verb phrase and its complements.
However, this research has not exhausted all the possible analysis of verb phrase in the language. It is an effort to provide the basis for further studies on the language.

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