Appraising The Relationship Between ICT Usage And Integration In Social Studies Education And Instruction In Some Selected Secondary Schools

Social Studies Project Topic

Appraising The Relationship Between ICT Usage And Integration In Social Studies Education And Instruction In Some Selected Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state. The study was specifically carried out to determine the extent of Social Studies teachers’ awareness of ICT for Social studies instruction, determine the level of ICT integration into Social Studies education, and determine the competence of social studies teachers in the use of technology in their instruction. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the level of ICT awareness of Social Studies teachers in schools is low. The study also revealed that the level of teacher’s competence in the use of ICT in Social studies instruction is low. Therefore, it is recommended that curriculum planners and developers should integrate ICT tools into Social Studies education curriculum. They can be included as part of instructional materials for quality teaching. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Information Communication Technology (ICT) has proved to be a catalyst to fundamental changes in the world’s economies and societies. It creates more avenues to earn income, allows access to useful information, enhances the world of work and makes the world a global village. The ICT industry spans broadcast, electronics and print media, computers, telecommunications and e-commerce activities. As put forward by Oyeyinka et al in 2007, ICT infrastructure is made up of all physical facilities and technologies engaged in delivering and disseminating information and communication services in telecommunications, broadcasting, cable television service, postal service, publishing, education, printing, computer networks, and a wide range of terminal equipment. The minimum composition of an ICT infrastructure that would bring about social and industrial development include: a functional telecommunications network with voice, data and video transmission to enable an information base that is adequately networked; local production of ICT equipment and materials; a pool of human resources with capacity in telecommunications and other related aspects of the rapidly growing ICT industry; and software development and production of information technology (IT) and its applications in area of education that includes teachers training programme and its usage in classroom situation.

Preparing teachers to be proficient in ICT usage is a key issue for the field of education. While many states will scramble to fill as many as two million teaching positions in the next few years, the public expects teachers to be able to integrate technology into their instructional strategies. New technologies are disseminated into our nation’s schools at a rapid rate. To utilize these technologies effectively, teachers need not only to be proficient in technology but also well versed in the effective integration of technology into their instruction. The key in meeting this expectation is the teacher preparation programmes.

Improving the quality of education through the diversification of contents and methods and promoting experimentation, innovation, the diffusion and sharing of information and best practices as well as policy dialogue are UNESCO’s strategic objectives in Education (UNESCO, 2002). This is because information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become key tools and had a revolutionary impact of how we see the world and how we live in it. This phenomenon has given origin to the contemporary and advances in our ways of life. ICT is having a revolutionary impact on educational methodology globally. However, this revolution is not widespread and need to be strengthened to reach a large percentage of the population. In a complex society like Nigeria, many factors affect its ICTs use and integration, so an interdisciplinary and integrated approach is therefore very necessary to ensure the successful development of Nigeria’s economy and society (Mac-Ikemenjima, 2005).

The academic landscape in Nigeria includes the teaching and learning process, along with the educational programmes and courses and the pedagogy or methodology of teaching; the research process, including dissemination and publication; libraries and information services; including higher education administration and management (Beebe, 2004). The integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in higher education programmes and especially in social studies has been the topic of a good deal of debate. ln Nigeria, the relationship between the development of ICTs penetration and use in teacher education programs and its diffusion into the programmes in Faculties of Education and Schools of Education is dependent upon governmental policies. (Beebe, 2004)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world especially in the industrialized societies. In fact, cultures and societies have adjusted to meet the challenges of the knowledge age. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid changes in technology, social, political, and global economic transformation. However, the field of education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of information and communication technology. Unquestionably, ICTs has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning, and research in teacher education. Therefore, ICT provides opportunities for student teachers, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning (Yusuf, 2005b, pp. 316-321). In the same vein, teachers need training not only in computer literacy but also in the application of various kinds of educational software in teaching and learning (Ololube, 2006).

Furthermore, they need to learn how to integrate ICTs into their classroom activities and school structure. The quality of teachers is known in virtually all countries to be a key predictor of student learning (Ololube, 2005a; 2005b). Therefore, teacher training is crucial using ICTs, because ICTs are tools that on the one hand can facilitate teacher training and on the other hand help them to take full advantage of the potential of technology to enhance student learning (UNESCO, 2003). Correspondingly, ICTs have introduced a new era in traditional methods of teaching and offering new teaching and learning experiences to both teachers and students. Hence, Nigerian education environment should take advantage of this capability to provide easy access of information, since technologies enable the visualization of educational materials in an innovative and realistic manner.


1.2 Statement of Problem

There has been a precarious relationship between social studies education and technology. While some educators have been fascinated by the potentials of technology to enhance teaching and learning, many schools have lagged behind in assimilating technology into instruction (Berson, 1996). Shaver (1999) expressed doubt that technology will ever incite instructional reform in the social studies education, and Pahl (1996) noted that social studies educators have been apprehensive about modifying instruction to incorporate technology. This lingering apprehension has led some researchers to conclude that social studies instruction has not appreciably changed as a result of technology (Martorella, 1997; White, 1997).

If the above situation continues, it will invariably leads to a situation where their would be no opportunities for student, teachers, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning. Therefore, this research is set to determine the extent of social studies teachers’ exposure to ICT usage and how schools and teachers have been able to integrate technology into their activities


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is appraising the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected secondary schools in Lagos.

Specifically the study will;

  1. Determine the extent of Social Studies teachers’ awareness of ICT for Social studies instruction
  2. Determine the level of ICT integration into Social Studies education
  3. Determine the competence of social studies teachers in the use of technology in their instruction.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to understand the appraising the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected secondary schools. This survey research addresses the following questions:

  1. What is the level of ICT awareness of Social Studies teachers in schools?
  2. To what extent do social studies teachers currently integrate technology into their instruction?
  3. What is the level of teacher’s competence in the use of ICT in Social studies instruction?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies instruction in some selected secondary schools.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies instruction in some selected secondary schools

1.6 Significance of the Study

The research results will have implications for future policy regarding technology training of teachers and the development of strategic plans aimed at encouraging technology-based innovation in teacher instructional methods and particularly in Social Studies education


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study appraises the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected secondary schools in Lagos state. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

For the purpose of clarity and to avoid ambiguity, some of the terms that are used in the study are defined operationally below:

Technology:

Technology in this study refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It also refers to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware, software, systems, methods of organization and techniques ((The American Heritage® Dictionary of the

Innovation:

The term is used in the study to refer to both radical and incremental changes to ICT products and processes. In the organizational context, innovation is linked to performance and growth through improvements in efficiency, productivity, quality, competitive positioning, market share, etc. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

ICT:

ICT Generally referred to as Information Communication Technology and includes all electronic technologies and equipment used in facilitating information processing and communication. ( (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Instruction:

In education, instruction is define as the act of teaching according to Advanced Learner’s Dictionary,8th edition


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state. The study was specifically carried out to determine the extent of Social Studies teachers’ awareness of ICT for Social studies instruction, determine the level of ICT integration into Social Studies education, and determine the competence of social studies teachers in the use of technology in their instruction.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of ICT awareness of Social Studies teachers in schools is low.
  2. The extent social studies teachers currently integrate technology into their instruction is low.
  3. The level of teacher’s competence in the use of ICT in Social studies instruction is low.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Curriculum planners and developers should integrate ICT tools into Social Studies education curriculum. They can be included as part of instructional materials for quality teaching.
  2. The school administration through the help of the government should provide sufficient computers and other ICT tools necessary for teaching and learning.
  3. The school management should provide strong and constant internet services in the school. This will enable easy access to internet at any given time.
  4. Social Studies education teachers and instructors should be constantly trained on the usage of new ICT tools which they can employ in instructional delivery.
  5. There should be an establishment of an effective ICT unit and support structure which will act as a catalyst for the integration of ICT tools in the teaching learning process.
  6. Schools should adopt online assessment tools in assessing students’ performance. This will enable the students embrace ICT usage knowing that they will write online test.
  7. Constant power supply is highly necessary for the integration of ICT in instructional delivery in schools.

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