An Appraisal Of Theory X And Y And The Effect On Motivational Policies

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

An Appraisal Of Theory X And Y And The Effect On Motivational Policies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The theory x and theory y are the theories propounded by douglas Mcgregor when he stated that some assumptions are made about man at work that retarded the development of the organization. The assumption he called theory x and theory y.for theory x the assumption are that the average man dislike work and must be coerced, directed and controlled in order to do his work. He can be made to contribute to the achievement of organizational objective only by threatening the satisfaction of his physiological and security needs. He seeks security and wishes to avoid responsibility for decision. For theory y he states that the ordinary man enjoys work just as he enjoys play and rest. He will assume responsibility quite freely, exercise self direction and self control, that organisations based upon the assumptions of theory y would operate differently from organisations based on theory x. such organisations would readily distribute responsibility widely among its managers and would want an individual to be involved consciously in relation affecting what he does and what others are doing and would want the individual to participate in setting goals for himself and for the organization. In other words, the individual would under the new assumptions, want to assume responsibility and the challenge for performance criteria. So theory y applied to the function of planning would give what is called management by objective involving participatory management rather than management by control.

The understanding of the theory x and theory will enhance the right application of motivational policies for optimal staff performance .an organization operating with the assumption of theory x assumes that the ordinary man dislikes work so he must be coerced. Here theory x require a concentrated and high level of motivational policy that will be tailored driven to the needs of the organizational members such motivational policy should spur the workers to begin to like their work and perform maximally. For theory y the case is the opposite here the worker is assumed to like work and is willing to take responsibility without being coerced. He enjoys work just as he enjoys play and rest, he will exercise self direction and self control. Here it is assumed that an organization under theory y shall adopt a set of motivational mix that also appeals to their level of needs motivating the staff for optimal performance seem easier with delegation and appropriate motivational policies that are employee driven. Therefore the research seek to provide an appraisal of theory x and theory y and the effect on motivational policies.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

THEORY X AND THEORY Y are two distinct theories with different applications, while thery x assumes that the ordinary worker dislike work and would not like to take responsibility ,the theory y assumes that the ordinary worker Likes work just as he like play and would accept responsibility . many organization do not realize this operating circumstances which exist in virtually every organization in developing economies like Nigeria. An understanding of this conditions enhances the adoption and application of the right motivational policies but this not the case. So when the wrong motivational policies are in place it is difficult to derive the best and optimal performance from the workers. Therefore the problem confronting this research is to provide an appraisal of theory x and y and the effect on motivational policies with a case study of juliu berger plc


1.3 Research Question

What is the nature of theory x and y and the effect on motivational policies What is the nature of theory x and y and the effect on motivational policies in Julius berger plc


1.4 Objectives Of The Research

  1. To determine the nature and effect of theory x and y on motivational policies of the organization.
  2. To determine the effect of theory x and y on the motivational policies of Julius berger plc.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The study shall enhance the adoption and application of the right motivational policies in the organization. It shall also serve a useful source of information to managers and organisations.


1.6 Statement Of Hypothesis

  1. Ho Staff performance in Julius berger plc is low
    Hi Staff performance in Julius berger plc is high
  2. Ho Theory x and y does not apply to Julius berger plc
    Ho Theory x and y applies to Julius berger plc
  3. Ho Effect of theory x and y on motivational policies is not significant
    Hi Effect of theory x and y on motivational policies is significant

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The study profer an appraisal of theory x and y and the effect on motivational policies With a case study of Julius berger plc.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Theory X And Y

The theory x and theory y are the theories propounded by douglas Mcgregor when he stated that some assumptions are made about man at work that retarded the development of the organization. The assumption he called theory x and theory y.for theory x the assumption are that the average man dislike work and must be coerced, directed and controlled in order to do his work.He can be made to contribute to the achievement of organizational objective only by threatening the satisfaction of his physiological and security needs. He seeks security and wishes to avoid responsibility for decision. For theory y he states that the ordinary man enjoys work just as he enjoys play and Rest. He will assume responsibility quite freely, exercise self direction and self control, that organisations based uponthe assumptions of theory y would operate differently from organisations based on theory x.

Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal (PA) is that part of the performance management process in which an employee’s contribution to the organization, during a specific period is assessed. According to Mullins (2002), the underlying objective of PA, is to improve the performance of the individual employee, thereby leading to improvement in the performance of the organization as a whole. PA is one of the ranges of tools that can be used to manage performance effectively, in that it provides data which feeds into other elements of the performance management process. As noted by Mathis and Jackson (2008), a PA system is often the link between additional pay and rewards that employees receive, and their job performance.

Motivation

Armstrong (2012) defines motivation as the force that energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour. It is concerned with the strength and direction of behavior, and the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. Mathis and Jackson (2008) view motivation as the desire within a person that causes that person to act in order to reach a goal. Robbin (2000), offered a specific work-related definition of motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual need. Roy (2001) defined work motivation as a process of energizing employees to the work goals through a specific path.

Essay appraisal method In this technique, the assessor writes a brief essay providing an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses and potential of the subject. In order to do so objectively, it is necessary that the assessor knows the subject well and should have interacted with them. Since the length and contents of the essay vary between assessors, essay ratings are difficult to compare. Again, this technique requires considerable time and thinking to write something meaningful for all subordinates. The rater must be very observant in order to ‘get enough information to write on each employee. If the manager is a weak writer, his employee may get weak rating. Graphic rating scale A graphic scale assesses a person on the quality of his or her work (such as; average; above average; outstanding; or unsatisfactory).

Assessment here could also be trait centred and cover observable traits, such as reliability, adaptability, communication skills, quantity and quality of work, job knowledge, cooperativeness, dependability, initiative, industriousness, attitude, judgment etc. For managerial positions, typical qualities include analytical ability, judgement, leadership, creative ability, initiative, knowledge of work, and emotional ability etc. At the end of the form, there is a section for general remarks and suggestions for future actions.

Although graphic scales seem simplistic in construction, they have application in a wide variety of job responsibilities and are more consistent and reliable in comparison with essay appraisal. The utility of this technique can be enhanced by using it in conjunction with the essay appraisal technique. This technique is very common in many organisations in Nigeria.

Field review method Since individual assessors differ in their standards, they inadvertently introduce bias in their ratings.

To overcome this assessor related bias, essay and graphic rating techniques can be combined in a systematic review process. In the field review method, a member of the Human Resource Management (HRM) staff may meet a small group of assessors from the supervisory units to discuss each rating, systematically identifying areas of inter assessor disagreement. It can then be a mechanism to help each assessor to perceive the standards uniformly and thus match the other assessors. Although field review assessment is considered valid and reliable; it is very time consuming.


An Appraisal Of Theory X And Y And The Effect On Motivational Policies


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