The Appraisal Of The Techniques Used In Teaching Of Economics In Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Economics Education

The Appraisal Of The Techniques Used In Teaching Of Economics In Secondary Schools


Abstract


The study was directly towards an appraisal of the techniques used in teaching economics in secondary school in the study area. In the course of this study the following findings were made thus; teachers should teach economics with lesson note and instructional materials and also conducive learning environment is highly recommendable for teachers and students. The specific objectives of this study are to determine the techniques used in teaching economics in secondary school, to extent teachers teaching habits differ in age, sex and class, examine students study habits through teaching and training. Questionnaire and oral interview were the method used for collecting data and frequency table and percentage were also used for data analysis. The sample size for this study was 378 which represents the whole population for the study and also random sampling techniques was used. It was recommended that qualified teachers should be in various secondary schools in the study area. Government should be also compensate teachers regularly, more classroom should be erected to maintain conducive learning environment.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

This chapter 1 deals intensively on the obligation of the secondary school in helping to promoting the full development of the individual morally, socially, intellectually and its contribution on the well being of the society in which he lives.

Further more, the term curriculum of secondary school has been designed to meet the desired objectives of secondary education as stated in the secondary national development plan. These aims broadly stated as follows:-

  1. Preparations for useful living in the society
  2. Preparations for higher education

To achieve these aims a member of school subject has been introduced into the curriculums in paramount among these subject in economics. Economics in a very important and exciting subject it deals with the day to day activities of man. Knowledge of economics enables students to spend wisely so that with resources at their disposal can be used to minimize their satisfaction. Economics prepares students to contribute positively to their rapid economic development of the nation. It inculcates the spirit of inquiry so that students can base their decision on facts rather than more sentiment. Simply, study of man’s judicious use of his limited resources for the satisfaction on his unlimited wants. The popularity of this subject among secondary school students in evidenced by the increasing number of those who offer it in senior secondary school certificate examination of both WAEC and NECO. In order that student themselves can reap the benefit of studying economics at school; they should be able to organize their learning efficiently. It has been observed that in their bid to do this, students made use of various study habit depend on the teachers teaching methodology. Some prefer taking down notes during classes while others just listen to the teachers and later read their text books, some have private study time tables which they keep to while others prefer reading together and discussing the material studied. What then are problem in teaching economics? In the height of these observation, the researcher has deemed it necessary to investigate the problem and remedies of teaching economics in secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

In spite of the support system given to the education of secondary school students by the government, majority of the students either do not or partially achieve their aims of secondary school education. This can be deducted from the increasing concern of the general public the unimproving standard of our educational system has regulated to the poor performance of students in various school subjects and inadequate teaching aid in the secondary school curriculum.

This poor performance could be attributed atleast in part to inadequate preparation which can be related to poor study habit and problems of teaching methodology in Economics. This is because it is not uncommon to see brilliant students failing their examination as a result of poor teaching and poor preparation. Many students perform poorly in their academic work not because they do not have the mental ability to do well but because their teacher’s do not know or do not have or use the most effective method of study or teaching. In order to improve students academic performance in economics and also improve teaching economics, deliberate efforts have to be put in place by both teachers, government and parents to drill the students in the acquisition of appropriate study habit and improve teaching economics. In this study therefore, the researchers is poised to appraise the techniques used in teaching economics secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of the study are to appraise the techniques used in teaching Economics in secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To examine the type of teaching techniques that exist in secondary schools in the study area.
  2. To determine the extent teachers teaching habit differ in Age, sex and class in the study area.
  3. To examine the extent student have acquired good study habit through teaching and training in the study area.
  4. To determine the techniques that can be used in teaching economics in the secondary school.
  5. To make policy recommendation based on the findings

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will be of significance to many individuals and concerned experts in academic industry. It will help to alert students teachers and educationist on the techniques used in teaching of economics in secondary and will equally re-equip them in an attempt to attain a higher study more especially in economics.

This study will also expose guidance and counseling personal and the school administration of the need of establishing guidance programme in school is so as to guide students in establishing good and regular study habit as well as advising teachers in adopting good method of teaching economics for better learning to take place.


1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions have been formulated to guide the researchers.

  1. What are the factors that can affect the teaching of economics in secondary schools?
  2. Are the methods used in teaching economics in line with the school curriculum?
  3. What measures can help students acquire good study habit their of economics?

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research is strictly concerned with the appraisal of the techniques used in teaching economics in secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

It will address itself to the identification of the techniques and training on good teaching and study habit on students achievement in economics.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

The researchers encountered financial problems. The money required for traveling is much, although they co-operated very friendly during the research work. Most of the teachers were not consistently in their offices. A lot of times were spent by the researchers in a bid to get them in their offices and classrooms. The researchers could not consult members out side the research group.


1.8 Definition of terms

Appraisal

Judgment of value, performance or nature of somebody.

Aptitude

Skill at doing something

Counsellor

A person trained to advise people with problem

Curriculum

The subjects that are included in a course of study or taught in a school, college etc.

Classroom

A room where a class of children or students are taught

Economics

This is the study on how the society organizes its money, trade and industry.

Guidance

Help or achieve given to somebody.

Grade

A mark given in an exam or for a piece of school work.

Habits

A thing that you do often and almost without thinking, especially that is hard to stop doing.

Library

A place where books are kept.

NECO

National examination council.

OKBR

Overview, key point, read, recite and reflect.

SQBR

Survey, Question, read, recite and revise.

Secondary  Schools

School of young people between the age of 11 and 16

Students

People who are studying at university or college.

Test

An examination of somebody’s’ knowledge or ability, consisting of questions for them to answer.

Techniques

A particular way of doing something especially one in which one has to learn special skill.

Teacher

A person who is qualified to impart knowledge to students by training.

Teaching

The idea of imparting knowledge to students.

WAEC

West African examination council.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the techniques used in teaching of economics in secondary schools.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of effective teaching of economics in secondary schools.


5.2 Summary

The researcher is of the opinion that poor student evaluation of economics courses reflects a real, underlying problem with the adequacy of secondary school economics education and identifies a range of measures that might be implemented to remedy this deficiency. Many studies have shown, for example, that teaching and learning would be more effective if a variety of teaching techniques were used in combination (Christoffersen, 2002; Hervani& Helms, 2004; McGoldrick, 1998; Saunders & Christopher, 2003; Smith, 2002; Walstad, 2001). Other studies suggest that certain personal attributes of economics instructors are the main determinant of effective teaching and learning and that the development of these attributes might need to be encouraged to improve the quality of economics teaching (Boex, 2000; Finnegan & Siegfried, 1998, 2000; Saunders, 2001; Shu-Hai&Goh, 2003).


5.3 Conclusion

The most common technique used in schools today in teaching economics is the traditional lecture method. Since this method tends not to actively involve students in the learning process, a number of scholars have advocated a range of alternative methods that actively engage students in core instructional processes including the lecture plus method and collaborative problem solving approaches. There is, however, mixed empirical evidence on the effectiveness of alternative approaches (Walstad, 2001). These conclusions suggest that poor student evaluation of economics course reflects a real, underlying problem with the adequacy of school economics education and identified range of measures that might be implemented to remedy this deficiency. Many studies have shown, for example, that teaching and learningwould be more effective if a variety of teaching techniques were used in combination (Christoffersen, 2002; Hervani& Helm, 2004, McGoldrick, 1998; McGoldrick, Battle & Gallagher, 2000; McGoldrick, Giordano, & Garcia-Preto, 2005; Saunders, 2001


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the following and conclusion made in this study, this article therefore recommends the following:
The teachers ensure students do more of practical than theory. This will be agreed with the common china’s adage ‘’what I hear I forget, what I see, I remember, and what I do I know’’.

Also, teachers should provide and illustrate for the learners’ range of experience from the environment. They should not lay emphasis on examination as the aim of instructional activities but rather, uses of full learning outcome should be emphasized.


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