Appraisal Of Tax System In Abakaliki Ebonyi State
👁🗨Download up-to-date Post UTME past questions here
📩Get complete project / seminar material for any topic
This project is specially dedicated to God almighty which for his Grace, Favour and infinite Mercy which enabled me to successfully round up my programme despite the circumstance and all odds, and also to all those who believes in equal right and Justice.
I wish to express my profound gratitude to the Almighty God for his protection, good health, wisdom, divine love and guidance throughout my programme period and also for making this work a successful one. With heart full of appreciation and gratefulness, I will always remain grateful to my parents MR. AND MRS. I.U CHUKWU, whom God has been using mightily to see that their children makes it academically and otherwise and to my siblings Chinimerem, Nnaemeka, Ozichi and Ifeanyi for their love and support during my academic session. I also thank my Victor Johnson for his love support and encouragement during my academic session.
My regards and immense thanks goes to my head of department, MR. BARTHO .N. OKEZIE and my project supervisor MR. OBI PETER .O. for all the help they rendered to me to ensure my success academically.
This research project is based on the appraisal of Nigeria tax system ( a case study of board of internal revenue Abakaliki, Ebonyi State). It does not serve as literature on Nigeria tax system in the institution but grew out my interest and curiosity in the modern tax system. The are five chapter in all, chapter one introduces the study, chapter two reviews the related literature on the topic under study, chapter three deals on the research methodology. Chapter four focuses on the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.
The objective of this work is to appraise the Nigeria. In doing this, the researcher went through textbooks and journals to establish why Nigeria tax system is essential and its development within the context of the Nigeria tax system. equally questionnaire were issued to the management and staff of the institution of the researcher to provide as concise would be of immense benefit to the people. Finding from the study on “appraisal of Nigeria tax system” has made it clear that tax system have contributed effectively to Nigeria economy as customers, contractors, beneficence etc. don’t need to present or on long waiting line before they can pay tax.
But need to create awareness and ensure its security and accessibility for the benefit of tax payers and as such will help Nigeria and the country as a whole to serve in this millennium. Recommendation were finally made that adequate workshop and training should be made to staff and to the users of Nigeria tax system in order to appreciate the essential use of the system to facilitate tax obtain cash in the country.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Approval page iii
- Dedication iv
- Acknowledgement v
- Abstract vi
- Table of content vii
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 problem analysis 2
- 1.2 History of case study 4
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 5
- 1.4 problem analysis of the study 10
- 1.5 Purpose of study 12
- 1.6 Delimitation (Scope)of the study 12
- 1.7 Assumption 12
- 1.8 Significance of the study 13
- 1.9 Definition of terms 13
- 2.0 Literature Review 15
- 2.1 Introduction 15
- 2.2 Types of tax 15
- 2.3 Capital transfer tax 22
- 2.4 Administration of tax law 24
- 2.5 Penalty 27
- 2.6 Best of judgment 30
- 2.7 Assessment of payment 31
- 3.0 Research Methodology 41
- 3.1 Introduction 41
- 3.2 Research Design 41
- 3.3 Sources / Method of Data collection 42
- 3.4 Population and sample size 42
- 3.5 Sample Design 43
- 3.6 Instruments Used 43
- 3.7 Personal Interview 44
- 3.8 Observation 44
- 3.9 Data Analysis techniques 46
- 4.0 Presentation and Analysis of data 47
- 4.1 Introduction 47
- 4.2 Presentation of Data 47
- 4.3 Analysis of data 57
- 4.4 Interpretation of Results 54
- 5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations 61
- 5.1 Discussion of findings 59
- 5.2 Summary of findings 62
- 5.3 Conclusion 64
- 5.4 Recommendation 66
- 5.5 Area for further Research 68
- Bibliography 69
- Appendix 71
- Questionnaire 72
1.0 General Description Of The Study
Government as an economic unit needs financial for its continuous existence the finance or revenue comes from different sources of which taxation is one of the major source. Taxation is a prominent source of fund to the government and as such calls for adequate system and control. Hence there are laws guiding the administration of tax, assessment of tax legality collection and accountability of the tax collectible.
A tax is a compulsory levy ( by the government through an appropriate agency usually the inland or board of internal revenue department) on the income of an individual or any legal entity it is an amount paid on account of the fact that the tax payer has income of a minimum amount for certain tangible and intangible economic activities which have been chosen for taxation.
It may be noted however that a public receipt having an element of compulsion does not automatically become a tax. Public authority could distribute certain goods services of which payment from the beneficence are compulsory. This has not qualified it to become tax, it has direct benefit, thus before a payment could be regarded as tax there are four essential elements which must be observed, which are; the art of compulsion. It must be levied by the public authority it is not fine and it must not have any direct guide.
Taxation no matter how it is obtained is precisely a liability on individuals income. Tax has its influence on the economy either by discouraging or encouraging economic activities, in fact it has been an effective tool in the hands of any government and economic planners to control the economy, in a depressed economy. The government can reduce the tax rate to stimulate the economy, thereby increasing disposable income of the people which however reflect in increased investment. The government on the other hand during inflation increases the tax rate to mop up the excess money in circulation. Thereby leaving the tax payer with little income to spend. This affect investments in the private sector.
Furthermore, taxation is used to avoid the consumption of harmful goods and their importation of commodities made locally and importation of ostentation goods. Also it is effective fiscal tools for redistribution of income in the economy.
1.1 Problem Analysis
Taxation being a major source of revenue to the government of the notion has to be adequately managed. In addition, taxation is been as an economic factor amongst others determining the tempo of investment and other economic activities. These call for effective management of tax. In the Nigerian tax system, the actual result is far below the expectation. Critical analysis of both state and federal budget has reveled out to be revenue from tax but the actual realization is usually in each case below the estimated amount.
It has been argued that with taxation, depressed economy would be stimulated and the consumption of harmful and ostentation goods will be checked. But for some years our economy has been in a mess and the consumption of harmful goods has instead been on the increase.
These and many other short comings are due to;
- The inability to enforce the tax law
- Lack of adequate knowledge to tackle tax issues.
- Little or non- existence of adequate follow up of earning.
- In adequate staff and employment of unqualified staff
- False declaration of assets
- Lack of reliable statistical figure on the population of the taxable individuals of the state.
- Fraudulent behavior of some tax efficacious.
- The problem of tax evasion.
There has been the public outcry by the rural dwellers “ no development no tax” concerning development neglect of their area by the government yet they pay tax. This discourages them from paying tax pay. This discourages them form paying tax hence results to much tax evasion in rural areas. This problem is similar to America before their independence in 1776 with their slogan “No representation to taxation.
1.2 History Of Case Study:
Board of internal revenue Abakaliki Ebonyi State.
Ebonyi state was created on the October 1,1996 where then military head of state under the late General Sani Abacha announced the creation of new state . it is made up of 13 local government areas.
Afikpo North, Afoikpo South, ohaozara, Ezza North, Ezza South, Izzi, Abakaliki ikwo ivo, Onite ha, Ohaukwu, Ishielu and Ebonyi. Local government. The capital is Abakaliki. The present day Ebonyi start at different times belong to Ogoja province eastern region, eastern central state, Anambara and Imo simultaneously,Enugu, Abia state. There were also Abakaliki province which comprises of both non – Igbo speaking communities whose relationship was only to suit political and administration convenience.
Ebonyi state is richly blessed with natural resources blessed with abundant mineral resources across the local government areas. At Ebonyi is Zine and Tead at Uburu in Ohaozara local government is natural salt water, this served the people of Nigeria during the Nigeria civil war at Ivo local government are blessed with Marbles quarry rock etc.
Ebonyi state is the salt of the nation and its blessed with fertile farmland. The major occupation of the people of Ebonyi state is farming. The farmers are mostly peasant, one who grows cassava, yam rice, maize, and vegetable. In terms of political cultural and social life the is people of Ebonyi state are not behind Nigeria is made up of many ethnic groups with different cultures. In Afikpo we have the Ogo society with many other culture which is the highest society in Afikpo, in Ohaozara we have Enyibe and the traditional head in each village called the Igwe and Eze who co – ordinates and represents the people in every issue that concerns them.
The first milltary government to take the oathnary general captain wealter her Feghabor followed by the assistant inspector general of police simion oduoye after him was the indigenous civilian governor DR. SAM OMINIYI EGWU after him is our present Governor MARTIN ELECHI EGWU who is now piloting the seat of the government.
Furthermore Ebonyi state has a common boundary with the people of Ohafia local government in Enugu state and the people of Idoma in Benue state. The problems of this Young state is lack of good infrastructure facilities such as a good road, electricity and pipe – born water. The consequence of this is that the people are inflected with the guinea worm disease due to ugly situation of the road the farmers are left with their farm products without attracting foreign investors who would have use those products for production. This will encourage our economy through the revenue that would have been generated imposition of taxes. Even the tax officials could not have access to some of the interior communities due to poor bridge network and road.
This hampers the effect of Nigeria tax system which also will effect government revenue. Abakaliki board of internal revenue was created, the board of internal revenue was created. The board is responsible for the collection of taxes within Ebonyi state and also for the administration of the state tax matter, it was established by PITA NO 104 OF 1993.
1.3 Administration Of The Study
The Ebonyi state Abakaliki board of internal revenue is one of the parastatal in collection of all taxes, which is charged with the responsibility of all tax revenue due to the state government it is headed by the executive chairman. There are presently four departments being operated by the board.
- Assessment department
- Collection department administration department
- Planning research and statistical department.
The finance and supply section under the administration department. The state motor registry is under the collection department. The board of internal revenue operates two major offices in which of the 13 old local government area. The offices are tax offices and motor license offices.
The tax offices is headed by the tax assessment authority with a tax collector responsible for collection of all road taxes such as vehicle licenses, driving licenses, change of ownership, prove of ownership driving test, vehicle test, conductors badge etc.
But the tax officer collects personal income tax through direct assessment of normal nite assessment for instance PAYE with holding tax, hackney permit, development levies etc.
Furthermore each of the departments is headed by a head of department ( HOD) experienced in that department while the secretary heads the police section and coordinates the activities of other department. The chairman heads the police section and coordinates the activities of other departments. All those taxes are collected by the field official and are paid into the state government account in designated banks. The tellers of the lodgment are presented to the treasury along with the copies of the revenue cash book where the collection were entered to show evident of the judgment.
The sub- treasury issues such officer with the treasury book 6 (six) with which the officer renders returns of collection of the headquarters. The returns of collection are collection from different officers totaled and presented to the government on monthly bases as the internal revenue monthly collection.
1.4 Problem Analysis Of The Study
Government need revenue to carry out its budgeted projects. There is no other means which this project could be executed when taxes are not administered properly in the state. This is the problem of Nigeria tax system, poor economic improvement and that people evade or run a very for paying tax without being noticed. These are various causes of poor tax system in Ebonyi state. They include the following:
- Poor tax information and accounting record
- Corrupt officials of tax agencies.
- Where income and poor fits of the tax payer are not
- Accurately rendered to tax collection.
- Where tax are not collected from that tax payer as at when due.
If this problem should continue, government may not afford to pay their staffs, pro vide the necessary social amenities such as good road, pipe born water and electricity, it may also lead the state into borrowing both internal in order to meet up their budgeted expenditure. The problem remains that people who are suppose to pay tax are by making collection of tax so difficult. They also obtain tax clearance through wrong channel, forgery thereby reducing government estimated revenue, all this problem contributes to the poor tax system in Ebonyi state Abakaliki.
1.5 Purpose Of Study
The purpose of this study are:
- To determine and identify the impact of tax on improving government revenue.
- Highlighting the need for tax in Nigeria
- To suggest and recommend solution that will help improve tax system in Ebonyi state Abakaliki.
1.6 Delimitation (Scope) Of The Study.
The research work is restricted to Abakaliki and Afikpo in Ebonyi state where the tax system are collected. This information collected in entirely from the board of internal revenue. Abakaliki and Afikpo. There were constrained by time and finance. However the work was successfully carried out according to the above restriction.
It is assume that;
- The respondent at Abakaliki and Afikpo North local government board of internal revenue will co – operate with the researcher and complete the questionnaire and grant audience for intervenes.
- The supervisor will give the researcher all the necessary guidance and direction for the completion of the study.
- The researcher will be alive to see the end of the study.
1.8 Significance Of The Study
This research would be significant in these aspect;
- creating awareness to the Ebonyi state government and the general public about the positive effect of an appraisal of Nigeria tax system on improving government revenue.
- To consider the appropriate measures necessary for effective tax system in Ebonyi state.
- To enumerate and identify persons organization and properly liable to tax.
1.9 Definition Of (Unfamiliar) Terms / Concepts.
In this research study, certain terms / concepts are used for the purpose of proper understanding are clearing, the unfamiliar term used are defined as follows:
This is a compulsory levy imposed by the government on the citizens of the state.
This is a way or method of generating revenue through taxes by the government.
This refers to the items to be taxed
This is the object taxed.
State Board Of Internal Revenue:
This is the board in the state level charged with there possibility of tax collection.
This is an income i.e. the total annual income of the state.
A computer is a processor of information of data.
I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic
📩How to get the complete material
The complete material is
N3,000. You are to make payment to :
Account No: 0811003731,
Bank Name: Access Bank,
Acct Name: Samphina Academy.
The mode of payment is through bank transfer or bank deposit
After Payment, send us the following information:
- 📍Payment Details (For Transfer:Send the account name you transferred money from | For Deposit:Snap and send the deposit receipt)
- 📍Project / Seminar Material you need (Topic)
- 📍An Active Email Address
The three(3) ways in which you can send us these information are:
- Through our email address “email@example.com”
- Through Text Message to “08143831497”
- Through WhatsApp “click to start chat“
After Sending your information and making payment, the material will be forwarded to you in less than 10mins via your email address
How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.