An Appraisal Of Solid Waste Management Strategies In Enugu State, Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State Waste Management Agency [Eswama])

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

An Appraisal Of Solid Waste Management Strategies In Enugu State, Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State Waste Management Agency [Eswama])


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Solid Waste Management has continued to be a major problem in many developing nations of the world. The Management of Solid waste has gradually become a threat to the environment of developing countries as these nations are progressively moving towards industrialization (Awomeso et al. 2010). Geoffrey, (2005) reported that solid wastes of the different categories being generated, had posed a serious problem for various solid waste management systems in Nigeria. The Solid Waste Management has become one of the most serious environmental challenges facing many cities including Enugu State, in Nigeria. Ugwuh, (2009) observed that in many cities in Nigeria, Solid Waste Management is a serious problem, this is in view of the tremendous increase in the volume of wastes generated daily in the country. Population increase, rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic growth are many of the reasons for the increased solid waste management generation. An average Nigerian is estimated to generate about 0.49 kg of solid waste per day with households and commercial centres contributing almost 90% of total urban waste burden (Ogwueleka, 2009). Existing information on industrial, agricultural and biomedical waste profiles in Nigeria is still little. Recently there has been a marked increase in the amount of plastic wastes generated in Nigeria, as it is the case with most developing countries; a greater percentage of MSW is composed of organic (putrescible) matter. A typical solid waste management system in developing countries displays an array of problems, including low collection coverage and irregular collection services, crude open dumping and burning without air and water pollution control, the breeding of flies and vermin, and the handling and control of informal waste picking or scavenging activities (Chen, et al. 2010, Manaf, et al. 2009). As urbanization and industrialization continue to take place, the management of solid waste is becoming a major environmental and public health problem in urban areas. These problems are caused by technical, financial, institutional, economic, and social factors which constrain the development of effective solid waste management systems (Turan, et al.2009).

It is a generally accepted view that many urban cities in Nigeria lack effective solid waste management strategies including Enugu State. However, the situation varies from city to city and the way one government is handling the solid waste management menace is different from other (Imam et al. 2008). In Enugu the Enugu State capital, a lot of efforts have been geared towards effective solid waste management to make the city aesthetically pleasing and environmentally friendly, realizing the importance of the city as a state capital and appreciating the recent rural-urban migration being witnessed. Also coupled with the increased economic activities and social status of the inhabitants of the city, successive governments in the state have taken seriously the issue of solid waste management. Ondo state government has performed creditably well in solid waste management. The achievement in Enugu state can be compared favourably well to that of Lagos state which has become a model for the whole Nigeria in respect of solid waste management. This study is therefore intended to appraise solid waste management strategies in Enugu state by using Enugu State Management Agency as a case study with a view to making many other urban cities to take a cue from such rewarding efforts.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The challenges facing solid waste generation and its management have been the concern for considerable environmental attention for a long period of time as communities all over the world over have begun to recognize the hazards what its management entails (Onu, Price, Surendran and Ebie, 2001). Millions of people are living without proper waste management systems in some developing countries in the world, constant dumping of waste in water bodies and uncontrolled dumpsites aggravates the problem of generally low sanitation, which pose serious threat to the surrounding environment and are a health risk to the population, causing contamination of the drinking water and soil (Anthony, 2011).

Agbede and Ajagbe (2004) conducted a study on solid waste management in Ibadan North revealed in their findings that no effort was made at treating different types of wastes differently for disposal purposes. The methods of waste disposal were sanitary landfill, composting and incineration. They also reported that the Solid waste management authority, the only institution responsible for the management of solid waste in the study area has not been successful in getting rid of solid waste. They attributed this to political interference, technical and labour limitations, inadequate finance and bad roads.

Similarly, Efe (2010) examined the problem of solid waste generation and management in Ughelli using direct field measurement and questionnaire administration. He reported that there were no authorized dumpsites in the area and the major method of waste disposal are open dumping, land filling and dig and bury. He further asserted that wastes are disposed unpredictably in the different neighborhoods in this way causing natural plunder, wellbeing perils, economic and social threat in the region. Moreover, he detailed that there is no solid waste management organization built up by government in Ughelli.

Aliyu (2010) examined solid waste management in Kano city, Nigeria utilizing information gotten from government organizations, interviews and field studies in three private zones that are representative samples of the city, revealed that around 3085 tons of solid waste were generated every day and the biggest measure of waste generated originates from family units in the study area. Also, the waste is not properly managed and thus has grave implications on the environment in the study area. From the foregoing, all the literatures reviewed were carried out outside Enugu State. Furthermore, none of the studies reviewed have been able to appraise the strategies of domestic solid waste management on the method of waste collection, transportation and disposal which imposes great burden on the environment. Thus, this study seeks to appraise solid waste management strategies in Enugu state by using Enugu State Management Agency as a case study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to appraise solid waste management strategies in Enugu state by using Enugu State Management Agency as a case study.

However, the specific objectives are:

  1. To evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the effects of poor solid waste management in Nigeria.
  3. To identify the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria?
  2. What are the effects of poor solid waste management in Nigeria?
  3. What are the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO: Solid waste management has not been effective in Enugu state.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significance in that it will educate the general public, stakeholders in environmental management, students, government and policy makers on the problems of solid waste management focusing on Nigeria with a view of identifying management strategies to combat the menace associated with poor solid waste management. It will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic. The general public, government and waste management agencies stand to benefit from this study. Empirically, the outcome of this research will enable the general public and government to grasp deeply the hazardous effect of reckless disposal of waste along every nook and cranny of the nation and factors that impede/hamper the implementation of waste management in Enugu State. This study will equally strengthen government efforts towards the release of funds for waste evacuations and prompt payment of salaries to employees of these various agencies, having vividly understood the importance of poor waste management via extensive work done on this write-up. Theoretically, this study will make a useful contribution to the field of management, as it will serve as another source of knowledge in the management of solid waste and material resources of the various establishments in Enugu State, Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the study

This study on the evaluation of problems of solid waste management in Nigeria will cover all issues related to solid waste management system in Enugu State, Nigeria. It will cover the attitude of the people in the State to solid waste management, policies and regulatory framework.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Also, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Solid Waste:

Means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations

Pollution:

The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.

Environment:

The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.

Management:

The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.

Waste:

This refers to an unwanted or unusable material, substance, or by-product.

Waste Management:

This is the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products.

Waste Management Strategy:

This is the process involved in dealing with the waste of humans and organisms, including minimization, handling, processing, storage, recycling, transport, and final disposal.


An Appraisal Of Solid Waste Management Strategies In Enugu State, Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State Waste Management Agency [Eswama])


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An Appraisal Of Solid Waste Management Strategies In Enugu State, Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State Waste Management Agency [Eswama])


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