An Appraisal Of Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In Geography In Some Selected Secondary Schools

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An Appraisal Of Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In Geography In Some Selected Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was set to investigate the performance of senior secondary schools students in geography in some selected secondary school in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State.

And in achieving this, four major hypothesis were formulated for testing, based on the following variable interest in the study.

Family Background: The teachers’ attitude and qualification, Attitude of Senior Secondary School Students’ themselves and the available of material and facilities.

The researcher made use of the descriptive survey research method in carrying out the study. One hundred sample elements were randomly selected among the Senior School Students in the three (3) Secondary School used for the study.

The study made use of the questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering information needed for the study. The data collected was analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics of frequencies, percentages and Chi-square (x2).

The result indicated that:

The family background of the Senior Secondary School Students would definitely influence their performance in geography in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun-State.

The teachers’ attitude and qualification world also to a greater extent affect the performance of Senior Secondary School Students in geography in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun – State.

The attitude of the Senior Secondary School Students themselves towards geography would definitely affect their actual performance in the subject.

Lastly that the availability of adequate and modern materials and facilities (including textbooks) would influence the performance of Senior Secondary School Students in geography in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State.

Based on the results and findings of the study certain salient recommendation were made.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Secondary School is seen as a center for a living in a modern age of science and technology. It was on the basis of this that Sofolahan’s Committee (1971) recommend geography as one of the core subject and this was agreed upon.

This emphasis on geography came as a result of advances in sciences and technology in the developed countries and their diffusion to developed countries which Nigeria is one Fafunwa (1971) accepts this when he writes “we are in a world of science and technology have become an integral part of the world.

At the Senior Secondary School Level geography is taught, this is in a response to the would wide move towards curriculum integration. An implication to this statement is that new trends should not be accepted unquestiongly and that teachers should understand the nature of geography and the need to integrate the components that make up geography and relate geography or nature to man which in this case is the study of GEOGRAPHY.

The nature of geography on National Policy on Education Stipulated that geography should be one of the core subject taught in Secondary School Level.

The choice of geography is based on sound pedagogical standing point. It present the whole of science and social science as the intricately, interwind and intellectually, integrated, enterprise that it is.

A curriculum that is subject centre does not foster the development of view of the life which, education has as its major objective. Besides students at this level have psychological deposition which makes them see event or phenomena, in a unified manner.

Furthermore, if the principal function of geography instruction on the Senior Secondary School is general education for the majority few of whom may become geography major this function is best serves by renewing social science in as a broad scope as possible hence according to the are curriculum for geography when the term social science is applied, it means that the course is devised and presented in such a way that the child:-

  1. Gains the concepts of the fundamental unit of geography.
  2. Gains the communality approach to problems of scientific nature.
  3. It helped to gain an understanding of the function of science and technology and social science in everyday life and the world in which he/she lives so geography occupies a special position in the Secondary School curriculum it represent the foundation stones for subsequent instruction in the social science in later life for a student who wish to pursue a social science related career and a general introduction to the sciences for the other who may wish to purse either. Humanity based on vocational inclined studies the success or failure of geography instruction at the stage of Senior Secondary, is therefore of importance.

A solid foundation of geography would equip Millions of Senior Secondary School Students for successful social science career, thereby indirectly contributing to the much needed science and technological advancement of the Nigerian society.

A poor foundation may have negative consequence. It is for these reasons that geography should be properly and effectively taught to students in Senior Secondary School to do this all aspects of geography curriculum must be taught to students in senior secondary school to do this all aspect of geography curriculum must be taught to

Student Lf They Are To Have A Balanced Introduction Of Science And Social Science


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The academic performance of pupils in Senior Secondary School Examination in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State has been very poor for instance the final examination (WASSCE) results for S.S.S. III geography for the past three year indicated a high rate of failure.

The table below show the failure rate in geography in some selected Secondary Schools. In Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State.


1.3 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do teachers’ commitments enhance students’ academic performance in Geography?
  2. To what extent does parents’ socio-economic status affect students’ academic performance in
    Geography?
  3. How does teaching techniques affect the students’ academic performance in Geography?
  4. What are the effects of learning facilities on the academic performance of students’ in Geography?

1.4 Research Objectives

  1. To examine the extent to which teachers’ commitments enhance students’ academic performance in Geography.
  2. To determine how parents’ socio-economic status affects students’ academic performance in Geography.
  3. To determine how learning techniques are affecting students’ academic performance in Geography
  4. To find out the effects of learning facilities on the academic performance of students’ in Geography.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This project shall be of valuable importance to the federal government and the Ogun State Government in general. But it will be of great importance to Odogbolu Local Government to determine how far they have gone in achieving their Educational aims and objectives with particular references to science and social science.

Furthermore, it will help in solving pupils difficulties. In science are as and hence ensuring that our future scientists have solid foundation. This project has been able to identify some problem that affect the performance of students in geography and has been able to recommend lasting solutions to those problems and the factors causing them


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Specially, the appraisal was a correlational study of the above tested variable or factor in 1.2 or a sample of Senior Secondary School Students achievements in geography in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun-State.

The inference drawn from the study were therefore limited to the precise sample in question. The main limitation is in the fact that only Six of the multi various identifiable variables that might have influence the performance of the students in geography are consider in this study.


1.7 Operational Definitions of Terms

(1) Appraisal:

This means an investigation or find out. It can also be referred to as a guess to confirm.

(2) Performance:

An Act or action of a person or somebody.

(3) Data:

The analysis of the appraisal made in Arithmetical form or order.

(4) Geography:

The word geography is coined from two Greek words geo-meaning the earth and graph meaning to describe so geography is the description of the earth it is also defined as the study of people their activities, places and physical things within the earth.

(5) Discipline:

To Train and control the mind and character of some one or to produce self control habit of obedience.

(6) Curriculum:

Brief written account of one’s past history or course of study in a school, college e.t.c.

(7) Subsidiary:

Serving as a help or support but not as of first importance

(8) Stratified:

Arrange in strata.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

Related to parents’ occupation, as presented above, most students’ parents were rated low, this implies the parents are not able to support and assist their students’ in their education. Besides, students who came from low economic background family were not able to cover the direct and indirect cost of schooling.

Concerning the supportive mechanisms in the schools, most of the respondents identify that the tutorial services and various supportive mechanisms including teachers support was not enough.

Regarding to institutional related factors such as shortage of availability of teaching materials, shortage of availability of support system for students, non availability of support system, lack of proper reading place are amongst the most factors that affect students’ academic performance. The overall weight of thethese factors indicate that institutional related factors are very crucial in determining the academic performance of students’ but the schools were moderately able to provide these facilities.

As illustrated above some major instructors’ related factors that affect students’ academic performance forwarded at high rate by respondents are; lack of experienced teachers in solving students’ academic challenges, low commitment of teachers to support students, teachers’ emotional and social skill in providing special support for students. Moreover, failure of teachers’ commitment to assist students, and negative attitude of community towards students’ schooling factors affects academic performance of students.

In the interview held with different participants all students, teaching staff and educational managers asserted that the reason for low academic performance of students was the lack of role model teachers in teaching profession in the region in each level that refrain students’ from being encouraged, building self-confidence and future prospective chances.

From data analyzed above student’s related factors was one of most affecting students’ academic performance. From result of questionnaire most of respondents agreed that socio-economic status of parents, level of education of parents of students, parental occupation, negative attitude towards academic performance, poor parental-child interaction, need for extensive usage of students labor, nonconductive home environment.

Most of students’ responds support of teachers towards students’ education and motivation and commitment to support students to improve academic performance moderately low. Respondents agree in this idea, and of the respondents were not agreeing in the considerable support obtained through by counseling and develop their knowledge to improve performance. Further, they stated as no provision of special class for students’ to inspire them to achieve academically better.


5.2 Conclusion

The main objective of this study was to assess the factors that affect students’ academic performance in the preparatory and high schools of wereda Irob and the major challenges of the preparatory and high schools in improving students’ academic performances and to suggest strategies that may help to improve students’ academic performances.

Based on the findings, it has been found that comparing factors that affect students’ academic performance was a complex issue which was multidimensional. This had been indicated from the findings in terms of, percentage of the independent variables among each other.

Based on findings, institutional factor which mostly affect academic performance of student was non availability of teaching material, i.e. shortage of instructional material. Lack of sufficient instructional material such as books, modules, library etc. hinders them from being academically efficient.

In the school, inadequate supportive mechanisms, i.e. the tutorial services, counseling and guidance were not sufficiently provided. This indicates the academic environment was not adequate for students. On the other hand, counseling and guidance to students was very low. The issue was one of the major challenges of academic performances. Counseling and guidance stands out to be a significant factor in creating and improving awareness of the society regarding to education for their better academic performance.

The parents’ educational backgrounds were likely to shape children’s attitude towards education. Since educated parents are likely to reward education, it may be expected that students normally coming from educated parental background persist and perform well at school. Students who come from economically stable families perform better than those who come from humble background, because the parents are able to provide relevant learning material such as text books and uniform.

Parents’ positive attitude towards students’ education and their involvement will play significant role in students’ academic performance. However, lack of parental involvement, encouragement and support of parents in education was very low which was hiding their potential to achieve academically better. In addition poor parental child relation also attributes to poor performance of students.


5.3 Recommendations

In view of the findings of the study and the conclusions drawn, the following recommendations are forwarded.

To minimize the factors that affect students’ academic performance, on the school level teachers, students, principals and vice- principals must seriously conduct appropriate induction, create sense of belongingness, ensure profession freedom, implement, continuous technical supports as its maximum performance of students.

Attracting parents’ teacher association (PTA) to school can bring parents and school together to work jointly for child’s education and parents can improve their knowledge and skills on how to involve in their child’s education as they communicate with their child’s teachers. Hence, teachers are expected to encourage parents and students to approach the school and the school administration also to facilitate things for the tight relationship of parents and teachers, whether parents are educated or not, by giving awareness and facilitating two-way communication, through telephone and letter to improve students’ academic performance.

The findings of the research showed that because of parents’ occupation – low economic background, most parents could not support and assist students’ by covering the direct and indirect cost of schooling. This inability of covering school direct and indirect costs plays its role standing in the way of students’ academic performance.

Thus, to tackle this obstruction and encourage students’ regular attendance, the school/ the government should subsidize education for students by incentives like minimizing direct costs to parents so that student’s would get the room to study hard and think only of their academic issues rather than think of the direct costs of their education.

This would be effective by either mobilizing stakeholders such as NGOs, community and other donors or by developing/forming compassionate club institutionally for students from poor family.

Concerning the supportive mechanisms the school was providing, the research identified that the tutorial services and various supportive mechanisms including teachers support was not in an adequate amount. This indicates that the academic environment was not suitable for students for their better academic performance.


An Appraisal Of Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In Geography In Some Selected Secondary Schools


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Frequently Asked Questions


Why do pupils perform poorly in Senior Secondary Certificate level?

While Adesina (1985), explained that pupils poor performance in senior secondary certificate level could be attributed to the politicization of education in the country.

How many questionnaires for senior secondary school?

By selection, the researcher based the 13 f questions on the basic hypothesis that are likely affecting Senior Secondary Schools. That is, 25 questionnaires to the girls and also 25 questionnaires to the boys making a total of 50 students in all.

What is the relationship between basic education and senior secondary education?

A successful educational process begins from the basic education level. This implies a formidable basic education preparation will lead to outstanding performance at the senior secondary school level. A study can therefore be conducted on the relationship between the two aforementioned levels of education. 

Why is primary school performance so low in Israel?

The performance at the Primary school certificate level according to Israel (1986), is as a result of teachers’ inability to make proper use of teaching promotion exercise in primary school result in our population of students; therefore making it difficult for teachers to evaluate each individual pupil’s attention. 

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