An Appraisal Of Leadership Style And Its Effectiveness In Organizational Performance: A Case Study Of Nkalagu Cement Company (Nigercem) Plc
This research on an appraisal of leadership styles and its effectiveness in organizational performance with particular reference to NIGERCEM company Nkalagu, Enugu state is intending to determine and assess the leadership style operational in NIGERCEM presently and its effectiveness as a means of achieving organizational and national goals.
In carrying out this research therefore, reference is made to source including some related literature. In addition, questionnaire method is intensively employed to gather the necessary data for the study. This supports with others forms of collecting data such as books and consultation to the company’s libraries. Although getting information through some of these sources is not easy, the researcher therefore acknowledge some limitations which may in one way or the other affect the result of the research. The collection of data is present, analyze and interpret the data. It is also to find out that most managers in NIGERCEM use to compensate their subordinates by giving additional responsibilities but falling to align such action with adequate incentives such as recommendation for promotion. Pay increases, and there is no proper provision for training of such workers to enable them carry out effectively the added responsibilities.
Also to note the involvement of workers in taking certain decisions establishment of effective communication between managers and their subordinates to a go a long way in strengthening the cordial relationship in the organization and thus will enable the company meet most of their objective set of goals.
This research on An appraisal of leadership and its effectiveness in organizational performance with particular reference to NIGERCEM company Nkalagu, style operational in NIGERCEM presently and its effectiveness as a means of achieving organizational and national goals.
In carrying out the research therefore, reference was made to sources including some related literature.
In addition, questionnaire method was extensively employed to gather the necessary data for the study. This supported with other forms of collecting data such as books and consultation to the company’s libraries. Although getting information through some of these sources was not easy, the researcher therefore acknowledge some limitations which mighty in one way or the other affect the result of its research.
After the collection of the data it was used to present, analyze, and interpret the data. At the end, some findings based on the data were made which among others is that the most popular style of leadership operational in NIGERCEM is participatory form of leadership, although it was also found out that most managers in NIGERCEM use to compensate their subordinates by giving additional responsibilities but falling to align such as recommendation for promotion. Pay increases, and there is no proper provision for training of such workers to enable them carry out effectively the added responsibility.
Based on the major findings, some recommendations for improvement was derived which among other is that there is need for adequate provision of training facilities for both the workers and mangers as this would go a long way in improving their performance
As also noted, involvement of workers in taking certain decisions establishment of effective communication between managers and their subordinates would go a long way in strengthening the cordial relationship the organization and this would enable the company meet most of their set goals.
Table of Content
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problems
- 1.3 Research questions
- 1.4 Objectives of the study
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope and limitations
- 1.7 Definition of terms
- 1.8 Hypothesis
- 1.9 References
- 2.1 The concept of leadership
- 2.2 Theories of leadership
- 2.3 The trait approach to leadership
- 2.4 The situational approach to leadership
- 2.5 Leadership behaviour and styles
- 2.6 Leadership effects
- 2.7 Determination of leadership styles
- 2.8 References
Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Sources of data
- 3.2 Interview method
- 3.3 Secondary sources
- 3.4 Population of the study
- 3.5 Determination of sample size
- 3.6 Procedure for gathering data
- 3.7 Validity and Reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.8 Data treatment technique
- 3.9 References
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Distribution and collection of questionnaires
- 4.2 Analysis and interpretation of questionnaires
- 4.3 Test of Hypothesis
- 4.4 References
Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion
- 5.1 Summary of the findings
- 5.2 Conclusions
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Summary and areas of further study
1.1 Background of the Study
Leadership is generally defined as influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly toward the achievement of group goals. This concept can be enlarged to imply not only willingness to work with zeal and confidence zeal reflects order, earnestness, and intensity in the execution of work, confidence reflects, and experience and technical ability. To lead is to guide, conduct, direct, and proceed. Leaders act to help a group achieve objectives with the maximum applications of its capabilities. They place themselves before to accomplish organizational goals.
The relationship to leadership to the management crisis is intriguing as a case of the situational approach to leadership. There is much facts to consider. In times of prosperity well-developed hygiene factors supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, wages, policies and job security-may, to a variable degree, be used by the leader as reinforcing agents to provide a “set” that will produce good results. But if adverse conditions develop, such as a long, drawn –out depression or defect by an enemy in way be wage cuts and negative changes in working conditions. What, then is the preferred leadership style.
Another hygiene factor, not include in the usual enumeration is the relationship potential. It would appear that in our society success is assumed and therefore is not a positive factor as a leadership role. On the other hand, can a manager with a succession of failures effectively lead?
The emergence of spontaneous leaders in times of crises used to be a favourite theme for developing an understanding of leadership itself. They group at play selects its leaders and follows orders; at all scene of an accident the doctor emerges as the leader. Are we saying that the best leadership emerges during crises? Based on these problems, it is the intention of the researcher to verify the existence of this problem in Nigeria using Cement Company, Nkalagu as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problems:
A look at the happening in various government owned institutions gives a picture of workers attitude that varies between disinterestedness to deliberate impediment as a result of which the smallest and simple piece of business takes more time and trouble that should and frequently, requires the attention of a senior instead of junior employee before it can be done at all. This adds to the actual cost of operating a business, which involves uneconomic and senseless of manpower. Through the yeas it has shown that government owned institutions have almost if not completely failed in they’re performance. This failure may partly be attributed to ineffective leadership it is based on this that we set out to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of leadership adopted by these institutions.
1.3 Research Questions:
This study does not desire to apply casual relationships among the
variable questions were posed.
- The leaders in government owned companies adopt what leadership styles.
- To what extent does leadership styles and practices affect workers feelings of contentment?
- Will changing the leadership styles influence effective performance?
- What is the correlation between reward and effect in the organization?
Answering these questions is one of the core aims of the research.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
- To ascertain the types of leadership style used in managing the company.
- To ascertain the effectiveness of the leadership style is the company
- To recommend the most effective leadership for managing company.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research work will be of an immense help to Nkalagu Cement Company in their process of choosing the best leadership styles to follow.
Furthermore, it will educate the company on the styles of subordinate and superior relationship to be maintained in the organization for the achievement of the organization objectives.
It will also help the general public on their decision on leadership style to be followed by similar organizations.
This study justified in the sense that it is done as a contribution to the current search for the solution of our managerial problem especially on the areas of leadership.
Finally if will help other researcher who will research into leadership styles in the future.
1.6 Scope and Limitations
The empirical study is limited to Nkalagu Cement Company. It will exclude those workers that cannot read and write since they may bot be able to respond to the instruments of data collection. However, the researcher did not find it very easy in statistical records for most of the work in some division where the current data are available, they are not released in full for few of information leakage especially in Nkalagu cement company. This is also some element of basin the minds of most of the respondent. Hence explanations on some questions are not explicitly done. Also these factors no doubt directly or indirectly would affect the result of this study.
However, satisfactory efforts were made to ensure that this empirical study was conducted under conditions that ensure scientifically valid conclusions.
1.7 Research Hypothesis
This study does not desire to apply casual relationships among the variable questions were posed.
- Ho – leadership styles are adopted by the leaders in government owned companies.
- Ho – is thee leadership styles chooses effectively used in the management of the company?
H1- is the leadership style chosen effectively dose not used inn the management of the company?
- H0 – how free are you to discuss important things about your job with your leader?
Hi – how free is you not to discuss important things about your job with your leader?
- H0 – do you share the view that it is essential for the subordinate to trust and the like the leader?
Hi – do you share the view that it is not essential the subordinate to trust and like the leader?
- Ho – to what extent dose leadership styles and practice affect workers feeling of contentment?
Hi – leadership styles and practices do not affect workers feeling of contentment.
5.0 Findings Recommendation, Summary and Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings
The summary of finding the study, conclusions are recommendations made here are the course of writing this project work through questionnaires and other forms of gathering information considered necessary. The facts collected are particularly on Cement Company, NIGERCEM LTD Nkalagu.
The most popular leadership styles existing in Nkalagu Cement based on the fact collected, is participating styles of leadership. This is consistence with likert’s advocating participating management styles as means for improving productivity. Although other forms of leadership are found to exist in this company among the managers. Managers in electoral division to practice participative style of leadership most. This means therefore that subordinates in that division are involved most of the time than any other division in making most of decisions that affect their workers.
The researcher also revealed that workers do not offer resign too pick job usewhere. This shows that to type of leadership does not affect the workers to the extent of changing jobs
The reason for this may vary. Firstly, it might be most operational in NIGERCEM does not induce workers to resign offer as there is generally good leadership among the subordinate and the supervisors. Another finding made in the course of this study is that most managers or supervisors in NIGERCEM do not encourage their workers by giving them more responsibility when they do not expect good work. This acts as a big incentive to the subordinate even though they may be no physical material gain from such action. It is innovative action but it is not backed by adequate trainings.
Yet another finding is that most workers are occasionally free to discuss their problems or important issues about their jobs with their supervisors or managers. This is mostly as far as junior workers are concern, practical in service division.
Another thing discovered based on the facts collected is that most workers whose manager or supervisor happened to have gone on training saw great change in their leadership style, behaviour and practice on their coming back. This then emphasizes more on the importance of training seminar, and so on to the workers and especially manages. Most workers agreed that their approach after such training is more cordial then before the training.
The study clearly shows that most workers see their performance level as been on the average irrespective of their perception on the manager supervisor behaviour and leadership styles. One remarkable finding here was that non-agreed to be performing badly.
Finally, it was found out generally that interpersonal relationship among the NIGERCEM workers is cordial. This might have been made possible by the participatory style of leadership.
This research finding in this project led to the following conclusions:
Different form of leadership and practice exist one at the sometime in NIGERCEM Enugu. The operation of type of a particular is dependent greatly on the fact that managers adopt different styles at different period to achieve their aim(s).
Therefore is might be rightly concluded that the participatory style of leadership existing sometime in the future as things changes. This is true because even now, data showed that some other styles of leadership each autocratic, lassez faire of free –rein are being used in division at least as seen from the answer given by the workers. Situation may one day warrants greater use of one of them, making it most popular in the company.
Most Managers in NIGERCEM are observant to any change in their business environment. This enables them to react fast to change. Some are found to be slow in response such change while only few are seen to be adamant to change.
Conclusively therefore, resignations in NIGERCEM in the past was not as a result of leadership style and practice but as a result of death, termination of appointment or retired compensation for job well done is mostly through additional responsibility among NIGERCEM managers. this is shown by the workers through their response on a related question. The conclusion was that most managers or supervisors prefer to give more responsibility to workers then to train them for better jobs.
Workers are not always free to discuss their problems with their managers or supervisors. Those who are occasionally free to do such discussion come mostly from science division on the side of junior workers and in administration division on the side of senior staff.
Findings conclusively show that most others have not gone training; the few that have gone are mostly from science division, especially senior staff there. None attendance was greatest among workers in engineering division.
Finally, a conclusion was reached based on the findings that the inter-relationship among workers in NIGERCEM is cordial and that the degree differs from division to manager received additional training in the form of hours seminars to mention but a few.
The following recommendations are preferred on the findings and conclusions of the study provision of adequate training facilities should be provided . This would go a long way in improving the performance and productivity of the worker training should as a matter of fact include such thing organizing –seminars, hours, workshops to mention but a few in doing these things efforts should always be made to see that such training has relevance with that what the company is producing.
This will help workers to accept more responsibilities from their superior and improvement is carrying out net jobs as one thing is accepting a responsibility and another is successful handling of such duty.
In the same manner compensating workers with additional responsibility only is not adequate while going on additional duty as recognition of work well done, manager should make equal recommendation for promotion and pay increase as these also from great incentives to workers. Such recommendation for promotion and pay increase should be strictly based on workers performance and output. This will make than more dedicated to duty and overall benefit of the company. Although it was observed that most managers in NIGERCEM are observed that there environment some are found too slow in adopting the changes which is in the interest of the company should be improved, through the provision of the necessary trainings, such as organizing seminars, lectures tours to related establishment to mention but a few as these will enable them exchange ideas with their counterparts in other establishments and similar fields. Such seminars and lectures for instance should have relevant to what the manager is doing in the company.
5.4 Summary and Areas for Further Study:
This research study extensively review the impact of leadership styles and its effects in organizational performance in most government owned companies. This was limited to NIGERCEM, Enugu as a case for the study. The necessary information for the study was obtained through the use of questionnaire, references to related literature to mention but a few.
The data collected were then analyzed and interpreted for proper presentation of the result.
Eventually some findings were made and some considerations deduced. This finally led to some recommendations for improvement.
The importance of this topic need not be over-emphasized but its scope and complexity, the over whelming feeling that there is still a lot of unknown about leadership, as will as the fact that the worst of managers can come from the most unpromising circumstances recommends this related topic “managerial ability determinants” for further study.
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