An Appraisal Of Inmates’ Rehabilitation Facilities In Kaduna And Zaria Prisons
This central thrust of this research is to appraise the inmates’ rehabilitation facilities in Nigerian Prisons using Kaduna and Zaria prison as a case study. Against this backdrop, this study attempts to empirically appraise the inmates’ rehabilitation facilities in Nigeria prison with Kaduna and Zaria Prisons as the case study. To achieve this, sample size of 145 inmates, 37 staff was selected through simple random sampling by the use of prison register. Qualitative and Quantitative data were collected through the use of questionnaire and interview method. Also the analysis of data was through the combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.
This result of the data analysis showed that the respondents varied in socio-demographic characteristic such as age, sex, marital status, educational qualification, religion etc. further, the data showed that many of the inmates said that there is rehabilitation facilities such as carpentry, work, electrical work, shoe making etc. though some opined that despite the existing scheme it was only meant for convicts and awaiting trial were excluded from the benefiting in such schemes.
The study also found that: Provision for rehabilitation services is still neglected and not international best practices compliance; the incarceration condition of the inmates with respect to accommodation, feeding and medication does not meet the United Nation’s standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners; prison inmates of these prisons prefer one rehabilitation services to the other. The most preferred rehabilitation service is recreational activity-football.
Despite the aforementioned problems the prison still has been able to play the role of rehabilitation at a small measure.Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that deliberate efforts should be made by the Federal Government and prison service providers to reform the Nigerian prisons and make it international best practice compliance. There is also the need to introduce more rehabilitation services, facilities and reformative programmes such as training inmates on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and giving adequate awareness programmes so as to rehabilitate prison inmates and stop recidivism.
Table of Contents
- Cover Page
- Title Page
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Significance of the Study
- 1.4 Aim and Objectives
- 1.4.1 Aims of the Study
- 1.4.2 Objective
- 1.5 Methodology
- 1.6 Scope and limitation
- 1.7 Delimitation
- 2.1 Prison
- 2.2 Type of Prisons
- 2.2.1 A Convict prison
- 2.2.2 Central Prison
- 2.2.3 Divisional or Provincial Prison
- 2.2.4 Prison Camp
- 2.3 Inmates Rehabilitation Facilities
- 2.4 Types of Inmates Rehabilitation Facilities
- 2.4.1 Educational Facilities
- 2.4.2 Health Care Facility or Hospital
- 2.4.3 Religious Facility
- 2.4.4 Prison Agricultural Skill Acquisition
- 2.5 The Problem of Nigerian Prison System
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Sample Population
- 3.3 Data Gathering Techniques
- 3.4 Analytical Techniques
- 3.5 Constraints in Data Collecting
Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Results
- 4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.2 Discussion of Findings
Summary of the Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of the Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
List of Tables
- Table 3.1 Break down of the sample for the study according to prison location inmates
- Table 3.2 Break down of the sample for the study according to prison location operation staff
- Table 4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Inmate
- Table 4.2 Inmates’ Perception of Educational Facilities
- Table 4.3 Inmates’ Participation in Skill Acquisition Programme
- Table 4.4 Inmates’ Perception on Religious Facilities
- Table 4.5 Inmates’ Participation in Mid-Range Industrial Rehabilitation
- Table 4.6 Level of inmates’ participation in recreational activities N145
- Table 4.7 Level of inmates’ participation in agricultural rehabilitation facilities/skill N 145
- Table 4.8 Inmates’ Assessment on the Quantity / Quantity of Basic Facilities
- Table 4.9 The relationship between gender and inmates
- Table 4.10 Extent to which inmates benefit from the social welfare service N255
- Table 4.11 staff opinion of the state of rehabilitation facilities N40
1.1 Background of the Study
The noble goal of the prisons services is to reform those who pass through the prison gates and also to protect the society from the convicted felons. It also serves to keep in safe custody persons legally sentenced to jail and identify the cause of inherent anti social behavior and treat and reform them to become law-abiding citizens. The prison also has the responsibilities to train inmates in trades that will make them useful to themselves and the society at large. (prisons lecture manual 2003).
According to the Jarma (2001) these objectives are not being met in Nigeria, he contend that instead of reforming inmates the prisons system is hardening them and subjecting them to horrible, degrading conditions and punishment, sometimes exceeding the crime committed, the process makes them to become physicals and psychological damaged, with the feeling of been unwanted, unloved and abandoned in uncaring environment.
Most studies of prison in Nigeria have been concerned with the sociological analysis of the prisons as social systems that have examined inmates (Sarki 2003, Muhammad, 2005).
Yet little attention has been given to the other factors that lead to the failure, in achieving the stated objectives i.e reforming, rehabilitation and reintegration. Such factors are inmates’ rehabilitation facilities which are almost in obsolete state and poor management in handling the available one. Inmates’ rehabilitation facilities which comprised of inmates’ accommodations, skill acquisition facilities, education facilities, recreational facilities e.t.c are inadequate or in state of disrepair. Many prisons in Nigeria have no basis utility services e.g toilet, water, light, medicine, etc and where they have are severely limited. (Asokhia M.O 2012)
Though Nigeria government budges a little amount in comparison with other countries in the world with almost the same population size but corruptions, poor management, unprofessionalism n handling the facilities are the accelerating factor to this unwanted situation. (Ogundipe 2008)
To find a solution to these problems and proposed ways of improvement in the management of inmates’ rehabilitation facilities are the question that this project will address.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the cardinal’s objectives of prison system is to wear prisoners away from crime and other anti-social activities and give them direction that will enable them lead normal live again. The idea is to employ the period of incarceration to impact other offenders the need to be law-abiding (prison lecture manual 2007)
Prisons are conceived as corrective institutions. They already are or are fast becoming so in many part of the world. They are usually structure to identify the peculiar problems of each inmate and device means of guiding the individual out of problems (Muhammad .B. 2005)
Studies however reveal that Nigeria prison rather than being reformative and rehabilitative they are punitive, degrading and dehumanizing and leave the prisoners with least opportunity of re-entry in to the society (Basher Tanimu 2010).
Finding however reveal that several factors are responsible for these undesirable situation here are some: corruption which has eaten deep into the fabrics of Nigerian, inadequate funding and bad management make many prisons to lack essential inmates’ rehabilitation facilities e.g accommodation, skill acquisition, educational and recreational facilities and were they exist they are grossly inadequate for the population, in some prisons officials complain of lack of portable water, inadequate sewage facilities which is having devastating effect on the health of inmates’(Muhammad .B. 2010)
Thus Nigeria needs conductive prisons, where function of reforming, rehabilitation and reintegration would be accomplished, not prisons that been regard as punishment ground, and it is as a result of all these aforementioned problems that this research work is being carried out.
1.3 Significance of the study
When the study is carry- out will elicit necessary feed stock, which can facilitate the improvement of rehabilitation among prisons inmates’ in Kaduna, Zaria and Nigeria at large. This study will generally provide a window to a glimpse into the factors affecting the performance of the Nigerian prisons in the rehabilitation of inmates’.
This study is also significant because if carefully carried out or done will serve as spring board for future research in the field of rehabilitation among prisoners.
Finally, it can also aid policy making towards the improvement of prison system in Nigeria such that after prisoner might have been released will have been acquainted with skill for self sustenance and will go along way to foretell and expose criminal activities in Nigeria.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess the inmates’ rehabilitation facilities in Kaduna and Zaria prisons, with a view to seeking improvements thereof.
- To find out whether the types of inmates’ rehabilitation facilities and their services are in compliance with the international best practices.
- To assess the incarceration condition of the inmates’ with respect to accommodation, feeding, education, skill acquisition, medication and recreation.
- To determine the effectiveness of inmates’ rehabilitation facilities services.
- To find out the barriers to rehabilitation in Nigerian prison service.
- To find solution to the problems.
The methods to be used in this research are administration of questionnaire and checklist. Interview will be conducted in Kaduna and Zaria prison to the both staff and inmates, physical inspection to the facilities will carry out.
The data obtain from the checklist and questionnaire will be interpreted and analyzed using descriptive statics as frequency and percentage.
1.6 Scope and limitation
This project is limited to inmates’ rehabilitation facilities in Kaduna Zaria prisons, however; this is a fair representation of assessment of inmates’ facilities situation of all prisons in the country.
The research is delimited by difficultly in having access to the data because of the security nature of the data.
Summary of the Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of the Findings
- Typical inmate in these prisons is a semi-literate male in the prime of his youth (18-29) years, is either unemployed or self employed (or apprentice).
- Provisions for rehabilitation facilities service are still neglected and not in Accordance with best practice.
- Some of the inmates (50%) demonstrated high level of interest in carpentry and tailoring.
- The available facilities are over stretched due to congestion.
- Some of the inmates (55%) are more interested in educational/academic career than in vocational education.
- Inadequate capacity development courses for the prison staff.
- Prison inmates of these prisons preferred one rehabilitation facilities/ service to other. The most preferred rehabilitation service is recreational activities-football.
Based on the finding the following conclusions were drawn.
- Despite the importance of rehabilitation facilities to prison inmates in his rehabilitation and reforming, the facilities were inadequate and were not in accordance with best practiced in Nigerian prisons.
- The incarceration condition of the inmates with respect to accommodation, feeding and medication does not meet the United Nation’s standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners.
- Finally the study concluded that inadequate funding and poor management were among the contributory factors responsible for non compliance of rehabilitation facilities to intentional best practices.
From the finding of the study and conclusion drawn, the following recommendations were made:
- It is mandatory that Nigerian prisons should endeavor to meet the standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners, because Nigerian was a party to the signatory of the resolution 1990/20 and 1990/24 of May, 1990. Government should provide adequate rehabilitation service and facilities in prisons. Correctional education programmed should be implemented within and without Nigerian prisons.
- There is the need to provide for more functional and adequate educational, occupational and recreational facilities. Others are accommodation, feeding, clothing, and medical. There is also the need to introduce more a reformative programs such as training inmates on information and computer technology (ICT).
- In order to tackle the prisons problem of congestion and overcrowding that over stretched the available facilities. There is an urgent need to institute alternative measure to imprisonment. When this is done the number of people going to prisons will be reduced. One of the notable alternative measures is the new restorative justice mechanism, which has been tested and proved to be effective in some developed countries.
- Designing of skills training should be made to satisfy the aspiration of most inmates, limiting the training facilities to carpentry, bricklaying, barbing e.t.c may not lead to successful rehabilitation. More craft and vocational skills including computer operation should be included in the prison vocational curriculum. In order to provide opportunity for those that still aspire for higher educational qualifications and to boost the esteem of the prisoners when they are released.
- Similarly facilities to help academic oriented inmates ought to be provided, prison library are needed and part time teachers to teach various subject including English language and mathematics could be engaged. This recommendation is based on the observation that some prison inmates are more interested in educational/ academic career than in vocational education.
- The computerization of the total prisons system for administrative records to inmate’s finger prints and identity is much desired at this present time in Nigerian development. This has to go together with the over hauling of the prison staff in terms of requisite qualification that are necessary for the present challenges. It is strongly recommendation that only staff with at least first degree or equivalent and at the same time computer literate will be promoted up to management position in order not to fore stall the wave of computerization.
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