Appraisal Of The Achievement Of Gender Equality Under Sustainable Development Goals In Nigeria
The study appraises the achievements of gender equality under Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. The study provides insight to the concept of gender, gender equality, the genesis of sustainable development goals (SDGs), sustainable development goals 5 (Gender Equality), sustainable development goals (SDGs) in Nigeria. Feminist theory was also used in the study as it encompasses all the aspects of gender equality
The study adopted qualitative method and historical/analytical design was used in analyzing its data. Data were collected through secondary sources which include newspapers, archives, books, conference proceedings, etc.
The study revealed that; No sex should dominate the other;. Women should be free to discuss every available topic under the sun with each other be it exploitation, oppression, sex, class and race;. There should be no attempt to restrain them just as they too should not attempt to dominate their men folk;. Women should be seen as responsible individuals who are capable to work alongside with men in building the political and economic development on solid foundation which are said to be the bedrock of nations.
The study concludes that, policies that will promote and enhance gender equality as well as sustainability should be put in place by the government, which are in conformity to international policies, so as to achieve overall global sustainable development goals in Nigeria. The study further recommends that; The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria should ensure that, the rights of women are in place and to ensure that the discrimination of women in the society be prohibited;. Grassroots enlightenment campaign should be organised to change the negative attitude of most people to women in politics and as well as the society at large;. For meaningful development to take place, literacy must be entrenched. Federal government of Nigeria should do more to promote education if they truly know the meaning of the concept of SDGs and its impact in the development of a nation;. Policies that will promote sustainability should be in place by the government of Nigeria, which should be in consistent with international policies, in order to achieve an overall global sustainable development;. Economic empowerment of women should be vigorously pursued since it will provoke greater participation of women in public affairs within the society.
The purpose of this research topic is to evaluate the importance of gender equality and the various ways it can be attained by the Sustainable Development Goals
Females, today, have come to be recognized as the foundations of the smallest economic unit, the family, from which all great people were born, both male and female. This shows that women are forces with which to be reckoned in terms of nation building and economic development. Due to ignorance, however, the special attributes of women were toned down and played to a minor key.
1.1 Background of the Study
Imagine a world that contains human beings who possess no sex (i.e. male or female), just human beings. In a world like that, rights and privileges would be distributed evenly/equally simply because they are “human”. There would be no partiality or discrimination when exercising human rights regardless of the person’s race, religion, size, etc. because before you possess any of those attributes, you are human.
Now, let us examine the world as it is; there are various human rights, privileges and opportunities that are taken away from some human beings simply based on their sex (e.g. because they are ‘female’). There are also various expectations, discrimination, double standards etc. placed on both sexes, male and female (Lakritz, 2019). This imbalance is what gender equality fights against and aims to eradicate out of the human society. (Meurs & Ponthieux, 2015)
Gender equality is the ability human beings have to exercise their rights and opportunities irrespective of their gender. It can also be defined as women and men enjoying the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic participation and decision making, and when the different behaviours, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favoured. (Adichie, 2015).
Gender equality can also be known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes. It is important to note that although advocacy on gender equality is mostly focused on females, males also experience various forms of discrimination and double standards due to what is called toxic masculinity. (Salam, 2019).
Masculinity is often stereotypically associated with characteristics like being tough, unemotional, and aggressive. Toxic masculinity therefore refers to the long established, conventional cultural masculine standards/norms that can be destructive to men, women and generally the entire society (Ferguson, 2018). It describes the narrow repressive type of ideas about the male gender role which defines masculinity as exaggerated masculine traits such as being violent, unemotional, insensitive, impractically tough, sexually aggressive etc. (Morgan, 2018).
Women on the other hand, often experience more forms of discrimination due to their gender than men in the society such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, girl child marriage, female genital mutilation, deprivation of education in some states, job opportunities, political roles, voting, double standards, etc. This is why as the society evolves, feminism becomes more prominent. Its popularity has risen around the globe in recent years. (Para-Mallam, 2018).
Feminism is a wide range of ideologies, philosophies and movements coming together; it advocates human rights on the ground of political, social and economic equality of both sexes. It is about females being able to make choices for themselves without anything standing in the way of that choice like someone oppressing them or hindering that decision because of their gender. (Zembat, 2017).
It should also be noted that as we evolve, there has been progress in promoting the rights of women and we now celebrate what is known as ‘International Women’s Day’ annually on the 8th of March. International Women’s Day is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parallelism. (Otto, 2013).
Now that we have discussed what toxic masculinity and feminism are, we are going to discuss how people tend to often mistaken feminism for misandry. Misandry can be defined as a woman’s prejudice towards men. People often mistake feminists for bitter people who hate men. Meanwhile feminists are people (male or female) who publicly support ‘equal rights’ and opportunities given to women and men in the society while misandrists are women who hate men and believe that they are ‘superior’ to men. (Young, 2015).
It is important to note that the advocacy of women’s rights (feminism) is an act that can be practiced by both of the sexes. Thus, the aim of this project is to examine the achievements accomplished so far on gender equality specifically under the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Human kind faces many challenges to ensure that all people will have the same development well-being opportunities. In the year 2000, the United Nations adopted eight (8) objectives to meet the main needs of the poorest. Fifteen (15) years later, one hundred and ninety three (193) countries adopted ‘The 2030 agenda’ that sets out the Sustainable Development Goals which is a new horizon with pressing challenges for human beings in the years ahead to come. The SDG set out seventeen (17) ambitious goals that require the collaboration of civil society and the public and private sectors. Gender equality is the fifth (5th) ambitious goal the SDG set out. Terminating all discrimination opposed to women is not only a basic human right; it is climacteric for a sustainable future. Thus, it is proven that empowering women and girls helps economic growth and development.
Despite all this progress, the SDGs still have a long way to go in promoting and protecting gender equality. For example, there are more women than ever in the labour market, there are still large inequalities in some regions, with women systematically denied the same work rights as men. Sexual violence and exploitation, the unequal division of unpaid care and domestic work, and discrimination public office all remain huge barriers. Climate change and disasters continue to have disproportionate effect on women and children, as do conflict migration. Hence, the need for the appraisal of the achievement of gender equality under the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria.
1.3 Research objectives
The overall aim of this study is to appraise the achievements of gender equality under Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. The specific objectives include to:
- Explore the roles of SDGs in attaining gender equality in Nigeria.
- Note what SDGs may have missed out in setting their various ambitions in improving gender equality in Nigeria.
- Bring up various effective strategies that can help improve the development of gender equality under SDG’s specifically in Nigeria.
- Identify and point out the various attainments Sustainable Development Goals have made so far.
1.4 Research questions
Given the research vacuity identified above, this study is guided by the following research questions:
- What are the roles of SDGs in attaining gender equality in Nigeria?
- Have the SDGs missed out any details in setting their various ambitions in improving gender equality in Nigeria?
- What are the various effective strategies that can help improve the development of gender equality under the SDGs in Nigeria?
- What are the various attainments the SDGs have acquired so far?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study plays a very important role in every society because every society consists of both males and females. Thus, in a society where males and females are present, there should be equality between both sexes. Thus, there should be no form of discrimination or partiality when rights are being exercised or opportunities are given. Every human being should be seen as equal before the law regardless of the various stereotypes placed on their gender which tends to set limits on their capacities to develop their personal abilities, pursue their professional carriers and make choices about their lives.
This work would be qualitative in nature and will adopt a historical/analytical design in analyzing its data. Data would be collected through secondary sources which would include newspapers, archives, books, conference proceedings, etc.
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
This research paper focuses on evaluation and assessment of gender equality under Sustainable development goals specifically in Nigeria. This research is embarked on mainly for the purpose of evaluating the various progresses, setbacks, goals that have been made in striving to attain and promote gender equality by the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria. Thus, I will be focusing on when the Sustainable Development Goals were established which was in the year 2012, up to 2019.
1.8 Operational definition of terms
This is the status of being male or female in relation to social and cultural positions which are deemed suitable for both men and women. It can be used to refer to one of a variety of identities like female, male, a combination of both and neither.
The premise and goal of feminism is that women should have the same rights, influence and opportunities as men. Feminism can also be classified as female empowerment, and women’s rights activism.
3. Sustainable Development Goals:
These are a global call for action to end poverty, protect the world and ensure that society experiences stability, security, welfare and health.
This is an assessment of something, and in particular an estimation of how much it is worth.
Equality is the right of different groups of people to have the same social position and be treated in the same way. Equality can be defined, in simple terms, as the state of fairness or being equal.
That is the biological status of being male or female depending on the actual anatomy and organs of the person.
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