The Application Of Statistical Quality Control Techniques In Industry (A Case Study Of 7-Up Bottling Company Plc, Aba)


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Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


Dedication


This project is dedicated to “God almighty”, to my loving parents, my brothers and to everybody who had contributed in one way or the other in this project work.


Acknowledgement


My gratitude goes to God Almighty who had made it possible for me to complete this work, and also to my supervisor MR AMUJI HARRISSON for his effort towards making my project a successful one.

And again to a wonderful friend MR PRINCE ONYEKA NWAKAMMA who have also encouraged me, and to my friends MISS FLORENCE OGECHI, NGOZI OKOYE and to everybody who had contributed immensely for the betterment of this project.

Okafor Ifunanya.


Abstract


The level of technical effort devoted to quality control in the industries in Nigeria is quite low, very few firms carry out two control measures in production that is, measurement by which risk international specification of ensuring that the product conforms to the specification.

It was done by taking a sample rejecting the null hypothesis. Today, this is beginning to change in some industry like bottling companies, the research project looked into the taste of a particular 7up bottling company product to find out if there is significant different in taste and sugar mixing irrespective of different location.

The related work done on this project provided some vivid point that can determine impressive bottling company performance, good quality control lab and protection of workers to avoid hazard in the industry. Among the major findings were the uses of statistical quality control in the industry.

The statistical control in industry whether there is significant difference in taste and brix (sugar) mixing. The data was obtained from the quality control department and 7up bottling company production -manual volume one and the data was analyzed using quality control charts.


Table Of Content


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Historical background
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 The significant if study
  • 1.4 Aims and objective
  • 1.5 The scope of study and limitation
  • 1.6 Limitation of study
  • 1.7 Research questions
  • 1.8 Statement of hypothesis
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Methodology
  • 3.1 data presentation
  • 3.2 method of data collection
  • 3.3 scope and limitation of the study
  • 3.4 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Data analysis and interpretation
  • 4.1 Analysis 1 or Appendix 1
  • 4.2 Analysis

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, Findings, Conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.1 Summary findings
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Historical Background Of 7Up Bottling Company

The company started bottling beverage in 1926. At about 1948, Mr. Abraham I; a Muslim met with some Hebrews who has franchise or right to bottle 7up, there after the chance to produce the product was bottled in Nigeria on 1st October 1960 (Independence day). It is a Multiplan entity comprising of Nine plant in Nigeria located at Ikeja, Abuja with it’s administrative head quarters located at IJORA Lagos.

However, the Abuja plant was founded in 1989. brand of product:7up bottling company bottle has following drinks.

  • 7up
  • Soda
  • Team
  • Mirinda orange
  • Pepsi
  • Mirinda soda
  • Mountain dew e.t.c.
Administration
  1. The General Manager
  2. Departmental head
  3. Production manager
Department
  1. Account department
  2. Inventory
  3. Marketing department
  4. Sales Manager
  5. Sales officers
  6. Sales supervisors
  7. Sales men and sales assistance.
Quality Control Department
  1. Water treatment sector
  2. Carbon dioxide
  3. Syrup room
  4. Boiler room
  5. Laboratory
  6. Line (production hall)

The seven up bottling company have quality control programmes focused on four view areas of plant operation.

Production Line Testing:

to ensure that the Individual limits such as the bottle washer, Mix processor, carbonator, fullers, cooling system are working efficiently and that the syrups, carbon dioxide and water are being proportional erectly.

Water Testing:

To ensure that the water treatment equipment is operating correctly.

Testing Of Ingredient:

Modification of chemical and packaging materials are received to conform Quality.

The Uses Of Statistics In Industry
Decision Making:

The science of statistics deals with making decision based on observed data in the face of uncertainties, the scientific study and industrial work.

In Management:

Scientific management is basically management on the basis of precise numerical Information without using statistical aid, such Interpretative fail to use one of the major tool for efficient management the complementariness of modern Industrial production and management makes it compulsory that management will be furnished with statistical data as raw material labour sales e.t.c.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

  1. High or low carbon dioxide, gas pressure, Inaccurate Instrument for measuring the quality of drinks, lack of carbon dioxide gas, Improper Adjustment of control leakage and line freezing caused by Improper heating.
  2. High Water Temperature:This Include refrigerator equipment not working properly or other coolant failure to draw cooler water storage tank, carbonator and filler bowl after machine has been in operation for a long period of time.
  3. Dirty Bollting: the effect of Mixing value and water not properly treated air in syrup in or in carbonated water.

1.3 The Significance Of Study

  1. The researcher report will go a long in giving the production department of 7up bottling company necessary (line production hall) guide line maintaining standard will also reach out to review the cause of Inequality process in the Industries
  2. It will help the quality control manager to adopt a suitable solution in a production process.
  3. It protect consumers from accepting a product containing high number of detective.
  4. It will encourage the producer to keep the process in control and full Information about the quality of the goods being produced.

1.4 Aims And Objectives

The purpose of the study of is to determine and identify if there has been significant difference in taste of manufactured product and also to protect producer from having their product containing low number of detective.


1.5 The Scope Of Study And Limitations

This work hopes to cover the following arrears.

  1. To ensure that finished product suit or meet required standard.
  2. To check if the processing system and production line.
  3. To present the consumer with a product that is consistently within standards.
  4. To cover a coordinated programme combining the efforts of the various group quality development such as improvement, quality maintenance e.t.c
  5. To cover an area of quality control programme focus on area of plant operations.

1.6 Limitation

Lack Of Finance:

There was not enough money to finance This work. I find it Very difficult to get through to finance my reports, since it involves gathering information from different sources.

Time Constraint:

There was limited time togather information for this work, due to other academic Responsibilities.

Unavailability Of Materials:

this was a major limitation I encountered in the course of this work, I find it very difficult and fasting to get book materials and make it accurate.


1.7 Research Questions

The research questions gathered in this work includes

  1. What are the reasons of studying a particular case known as quality control of 7up company Aba?
  2. What are the major problems in quality control as to 7up bottling company as a case study
  3. Who is to blame for any problem found in quality control processor?

1.8 Statement Of The Hypothesis

Ho: there is no significant difference in taste and mixing irrespective of different locations.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

From this work, I am to deduce the following terms

1. Statistical Quality Control:

Is defined as an organized system for integrating (co_ordinating) quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement effort of the various groups in an organization to enable production of goods and services at the most economical level which allow full customers satisfaction.

2. Process Control:

Is any employment of material machines and man for the purpose of production. It is an organized procedure for ensuring the desired quality of man, machine and machine operators, spare parts materials and assemblies of various stages of industrial ride.

3. Production Control:

it is the act of observing different attributes of quality specification of a product with the aim of ensuring that the product conforms to specifications.

4. Action Limit:

these are the limits that tell us that the product will soon be out of control. These are the upper control limit or lower control limit, but the product in these limits is in control except if they passes the limits.

5. Warning Limit:

These are the limits that tell the controller that the product will soon enter action limit, the warning limits are upper warning limit and lower warning limit.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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