The Application Of Andragogy In Teaching English In Senior Secondary Schools In Rivers State

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

The Application Of Andragogy In Teaching English In Senior Secondary Schools In Rivers State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the application of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of English teachers of some selected senior secondary schools in Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 39 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent andragogy is used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State is high. The study also revealed that the use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance. Furthermore, there is a difference in using andragogy or pedagogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance. Therefore, it is recommended that educators as well as the educational systems world-wide should provide all learners, both children and adults, with the opportunities to be actively engaged in learner-centered educational experiences. And it is very essential for the instructors to accept the changes within the educational sector, be adaptive in order to cope with the ever-changing cultural and technological environment; and be innovative, and must maintain an effective instructional environment within an evidence-based teaching approach.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Learning is the process of obtaining various kills and attitudes. In human life, learning has begun in the womb until death with a number of stimulation provided by parents, lecturers and people in the environment, even from natural events experienced by humans during life. Therefore, humans cannot be separated from education, because education is a process carried out by each individual towards a better direction. Dealing with human potential, scholars express about studying ranging from swings to burrows. In achieving an educational goal, the position of the teacher or lecturer is important because He is a driving force in the implementation of education. The quality of education is largely determined by the quality of the teacher or lecturer.(Wang & Storey, 2015).

Character education must have some basic aspects, such as intelligence, creativity, and high discipline (Fathurrochman & Apriani, 2017). Learning is essentially done by anyone, both children and adult humans. An important aspect of education that receives attention is the concept of education for adults (andragogy). Education or learning efforts in adults require special approaches and strategies and must have a strong grip on the concept of theory based on the assumptions or understanding of adults as students. By using the theories, adult learning activities or efforts within the framework of the development or realization of achieving the ideals of lifelong education can be obtained with the support of theoretical concepts.

In the teaching and learning process, lecturers as educators must have knowledge of approaches for adult students so that students can learn effectively and efficiently based on a theoretical approach that hits the expected goal (Saleh & Mujiyanto, 2017; Martina, Syafryadin, Saputra, Rakhmanina, 2020). One step to having a strategy is to have to master presentation techniques used in teaching English. The theory of andragogy education proposed by M. Knowles can be implemented in every culture. By considering and understanding adults in learning, learning in recruiting adults to have a learning structure will be more effective and productive. Using the andragogy method proposed by M. Knowles, adults will learn not as in pedagogy that comes from “content plans”, but from “design processes”. In the existing education process, adults will discuss in an environment of mutual respect through finding and contributing their knowledge and experiences to other adult students (Taylor, 2009).

EFL is a place where lecturers teach English to students in countries that used English is not as their first or second language. As we know that in this country, the first language is Mother language and the second is Indonesian language. It made the students in Indonesia difficulties learning English. Thus, it is interesting to be saved more specifically when attracting andragogy of EFL students in the English Study Program. By investigating it, there will be an expectation of obtaining valuable information about how to teach and improve the achievement of EFL students. For this reason researchers are interested in conducting a study entitled Teaching English By Using The Andragogy Approach For Efl Students In Iain Curup. At the end of this study, the next research will get results related to the andragogy-approved analysis. Then this research can provide valuable information for IAIN Curup.
Andragogy learning systems are used to teach students that have been considered as adults. Therefore andragogy is the form of learning which facilitates the achievement of learning target and trains a student to be independent, able to be a teacher for himself. Knowles and Srinivasan declare that andragogy as the art and science to help adult to learner. According to Knowles there is fundamental differences regarding the assumptions used by andragogy with pedagogy. Andragogy basically uses assumptions of self- concept, experience, learning readiness, and learning orientation(Pelatihan et al., n.d.). An andragogy approach focuses on adult students. It can be concluded that andragogy is a learning process which can help adults develop ideas and needs. Learning by using the andragogy approach is a normal thing for lecturers to do. However, in reality, the tutor’s ability to apply the andragogy approach still needs to be improved(Wang & Storey, 2015).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Adult Education or andragogy is defined as the art and science of helping adults carry out learning activities (Rahman & Elshap, 2018). Adult education is a systematic and continuous learning process for someone who has an adult status based on the main characteristics of his social role with the aim of achieving changes in his knowledge, attitudes, values and skills (Rahman & Elshap, 2018). The approach taken must refer to the concept of adult education (andragogy) which includes the following four things, a. educational material or curriculum must be oriented based on the needs and interests of students (subject matter centered orientation), b. learning orientation is based on solving problems faced by students (problem centered orientation), and c. time perspective becomes important for students. that is, adults learn for the present not for the future, and d. subject matter must be adapted to the experiences possessed by students, because basically they are adults who have had experience throughout their lives (Juddah, 2015). But is adult education suitable to be used in teaching all subjects especially English in secondary schools? This study seeks to address this.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the application of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State. Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent andragogy is used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
  2. To determine whether the use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance.
  3. To determine whether there is a difference in using andragogy or pedagogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent is andragogy used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State?
  2. Does the use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance?
  3. Is there a difference in using andragogy or pedagogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H01: The extent in which andragogy is used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State is not high.
  • H02: The use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State does not affect academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will aid the education sector as it will highlight the importance of English Language and the use of andragogy to teach it. It will also assist policy makers in making effective policies.

This study will contribute to the current literature in this field and will also serve as a resource for academics, researchers, and students who may want to do future research on this topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on examining the application of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State. Specifically, this study is focused on determining the extent andragogy is used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State, determining whether the use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance and determining whether there is a difference in using andragogy or pedagogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Andragogy:

Andragogy refers to methods and principles used in adult education. The word comes from the Greek ἀνδρ-, meaning “man”, and ἀγωγός, meaning “leader of”.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings onthe application of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the application of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State. The study is was specifically carried out to; determine the extent andragogy is used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State, determine whether the use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance, and determine whether there is a difference in using andragogy or pedagogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were English teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent andragogy is used in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State is high.
  2. The use of andragogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance.
  3. There is a difference in using andragogy or pedagogy in teaching English in senior secondary schools in Rivers State affects academic performance.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Educators as well as the educational systems world-wide should provide all learners, both children and adults, with the opportunities to be actively engaged in learner-centered educational experiences.
  2. It is very essential for the instructors to accept the changes within the educational sector, be adaptive in order to cope with the ever-changing cultural and technological environment; and be innovative, and must maintain an effective instructional environment within an evidence-based teaching approach.
  3. The educational institutions must organise various training programmes and workshops for their staff members for enabling them to integrate technology into classroom instruction which can result in increased retention and comprehension of presented course material resulting in higher performance of participatory learning.

The Application Of Andragogy In Teaching English In Senior Secondary Schools In Rivers State


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