The Need For The Application Of Value Analysis And Value Engineering In Cost Reduction (A Case Study Of Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri)
This project work was chosen in order to determine the need for the application of value analysis and value Engineering in cost reduction. It will x-ray the gains, benefits and contributions of value analysis and value Engineering in Bottling industries with special reference to Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri.
The topic in question will reveal the methods by which value analysis and value engineering techniques can be applied as well as the contribution of other functional departments in the application of value analysis and value engineering.
It will also identify the factors that are responsible for unnecessary cost of products and the reasons why value analysis programme fail some times.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Hypothesis
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 What is Value
- 2.2 Value Analysis, What it is all About
- 2.3 Value Engineering, What it is all About
- 2.4 The Purpose of Value Analysis and Value Engineering
- 2.5 Causes of Unnecessary Cost
- 2.6 Purchasing Role in Value Analysis
- 2.7 Methods of Implementing Value Analysis
- 2.8 Value Analysis Procedure
- 2.9 Why Value Analysis Programme Fail
- 2.10 The Gains or Benefits of Value Analysis Programme
- 3.1 Historical background
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Questionnaire Design
- 3.4 Population / Sample Technique
- 3.4.1 Population
- 3.4.2 Sample Selection
- 3.5 Sources of Data
- 3.5.1 Primary data
- 3.6 Secondary data
- 3.6.1 Data collection technique
- 3.6.2 The survey
- 3.6.3 Observations
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Testing of Hypothesis
- 4.3 Decision Rule
- 4.4 Discussions on Major Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Value analysis as an organized study of the function of materials, parts and components involves the critical examination of goods or products, which is aimed at improving its efficiency in use by changes in design, production technique, packaging and other related process whereas value engineering represents the application of value analysis at the preproduction stage. It is purely concerned more of cost-avoidance while value analysis is concerned more of cost-correction.
Value analysis is an organized procedure for the efficient identification of unnecessary cost by analysis of the function i.e. (the property of the product which makes it work or sell). The essence of value analysis, therefore, is first to identify the function of the product and then to examine alternative ways in which this function can be achieved, choosing that which involves the least cost. Value analysis is probably the greatest cost-saving technique used in industries today. It represents a powerful set of tools which can be used by management in controlling material costs. The fundamental objective of value analysis activities is the procurement of materials representing the “Best Buy” in terms of function to be performed.
The general idea behind this is the issue of quality and cost. The main objective of every organization is to make profit, just as a product is purchased to satisfy a particular purpose. For this reasons, it becomes important to correct or even avoid those unnecessary cost elements in a production design. This in essence stimulated the researchers interest most to carryout this research.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Nigeria as a nation is blessed with so many industries whose services the nation cannot do without. These industries are charged with the responsibilities of providing goods and services of high quality standard at a reduced and affordable price for the citizens. Materials in this respect become so vital that no results could be achieved without good procurement procedure. This is essentially as a result of the fact that purchased materials contribute very tremendously to companies profit and profitability. Apparently this stems very sufficiently as a result of lack of recognition being accorded purchasing function by most of these companies.
It is a material fact that a company that buy wisely and economical profits well and therefore less vulnerable to economical doom. Succinctly put by O.K. Oyeoku that “when people put break on improvements in purchasing, they put limit to profitability.
The researcher associates part of the problems with:
- The organization does not have enough time to examine critically all the possible alternative materials and processes.
- The organization’s inability to apply a formalized approach to the identification and elimination of unnecessary cost.
- The materials procured by the organization are very expensive.
- The purchasing function is not accorded its due recognition.
- The organization does not have the skills to consider the technical and commercial aspect of conducting a value analysis programme.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study is undertaken in order to explore the academic relationship between classroom theory and what is practically obtainable in bottling industry having carefully chosen the project topic.
“The need for the application of value analysis and value engineering in cost reduction” (A case study of Nigerian Bottling Company, Owerri).
- To investigate those factors that are responsible for unnecessary cost of an item in a bottling company.
- To identify the gains that can be derived from the implementation of effective value analysis programme in a bottling industry.
- To investigate what should be the role of purchasing in value analysis in a bottling company.
- To identify those areas in which value analysis is applicable that will result into cost reduction to the overall goal of the industry.
- To cause top-management to realize that value analysis should really be everybody’s business. In one sense, maximum potential can be realized from a value analysis programme only if management properly taps these potential resources.
1.4 Significance of the Study
In view of the huge expenditure on purchase of materials used in industries, it becomes imperative for the implementation of value analysis techniques to reduce cost of production in industries. It is the significance of this study to make a viable and significant rectifications so as to determine alternative ways of obtaining same quality material or item but at a reduced cost.
It is also the significant of this study to arcuse consciousness to the benefits of effective value analysis program in bottling industries.
This project will also show how purchasing as a member of value analysis team involve in value analysis programme.
This project is also aimed to review the way cost is being reduced by the use of value analysis technique in Nigerian Bottling Company, Owerri.
The study is also undertaken in partial fulfillment of the National Board for Technical Education and the Federal Polytechnic Nekede, for the award of HND in Purchasing and Supply. Finally, it will remain as a data bank for future researchers.
1.5 Research Questions
To achieve the objective of the study, the following research questions are necessary notable among them are:
- Is value analysis an effective technique in respect to cost reduction programme.
- Does value analysis lead to a drastic cost reduction in products and services in industries.
- Does purchasing play a major role in value analysis programme.
- Are those involved in product design, have enough time to critically examine possible alternatives materials and processes.
Based on the research questions above, the following hypothesis are formulated to be tested.
- H0: Value analysis is not an effective technique in respect to cost reduction programme.
HI: Value analysis has been known as an effective technique in respect to cost reduction programme.
- H0: Not every firm requires the application of value analysis.
HI: Every firm requires the application of value analysis.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is supposed to cover notable bottling industries, but as a result of the researcher being a student and due to time constraint this research work will be focusing on the very departments in “Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri” that will make impact on the subject matter and these department are as follows: Purchasing, production, Quality and Control, Accounting, Design and Engineering Departments.
1.8. Limitation of the Study
The research is handicapped by a number of factors notable among them are:
- Time factor
- Insufficient literature materials
- Poor response
Time factor was one of the limiting factors that affected this project work, that is to say, the time within which to complete this work is relatively short and does not allow for a detailed investigation of the facts needed by the researcher.
In a project like this, there are bound to be some hindrances and obstacles posing a threat to the progress of the project. As we all know, money is not easy to come by as the researcher has to limit herself to the available financial resources and has to structurally adjust the project.
3. Insufficient Literature Materials:
The greatest hindrance of this project work is the invariability of insufficient literature material for this work to be effectively carried out by the researcher.
4. Poor Response:
The response of people during interview was very poor and there were some questions asked and their response could be that they were incompetent to speak on such issues or they would tell you that it is confidential as a result of this information was not let out easily.
There was also the risk of running up and down to collect the necessary data for the project, as they could not be collected once.
Also the condition under which we are subjected to study is very poor and the researcher had to attend her lectures, do her assignment together with carrying out this project work. This did not affect the design of the project itself, rather, some of the figures and facts inside are accurate account based on the best of my knowledge.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Functional value as used is simply that which enables an item or product to fulfill its stated function. It can also be called used value.
This is simply the measure of value of beauty attached to an item that increases its desirability.
This is the detailed study or examination of something in other to understand more about it or what it consists.
As used here is an important part of material management, standing mainly for obtaining the right quality materials from the right source, in the right quantity, at the right time.
This is something you can choose or have out of two or more possibilities to achieve the same objective.
This is the cash worth of something in its present form. It is the price, a purchaser offers for an item.
This is the systematic study of a product or material with a view to reduce their cost by redesigning or eliminate design features which add to cost but do not contribute to value.
Value engineering is the application of value analysis techniques in the pre-production or product development stage.
This is the process of designing a product or material again in a different way. It is an adjustment on a product design by eliminating certain features of the product.
This is the price paid or required for acquiring, producing or maintaining something measured in money.
Production can be defined as the creation or manufacture of goods and services with exchange value.
Value is simply the desirability of a thing.
This is the formal meeting of people who come together to achieve a particular goal.
This is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or a service that bears on the ability to satisfy a stated need.
It simply means to obtain or acquire.
This is the description of any object, materials or process in sufficient detail to enable its manufacture and further identical reproduction.
It simply means to remove or take out.
This is the material on which further manufacturing process is carried out.
This is the excess of revenue over outlay and expenses in a business enterprise.
This is a specialized division of a large concern, such as a business.
This is a practical method or art applied to a particular skill.
Is simply a branch of commercial enterprise concerned with output of a specified product.
Is a constituent part or aspect of something more complex.
It simply means able to be trusted, dependable.
This means a prominent or distinctive part.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Based on the above research and having discussed what value analysis and value engineering is all about. Chapter one deals with the background of the study, statement of problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, research questions, hypothesis and scope of the study.
Chapter two goes further to highlight the need for the application of value analysis and value engineering in cost reduction from various authors point of view which is the literature review. Chapter three centers on research methodology and the various methods used by the researcher to source for information. Chapter four deals with presentation of the data collected and analysis, testing of hypothesis using chi-square and decisions were made. Finally, chapter five is based on summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Having examined the need for the application of value analysis and value engineering in cost reduction, A case study of Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri and having observed the above findings the conclusion are quite obvious.
- Only a well thought out and properly programmed and applied value analysis and value engineering programme could contribute most meaningfully and positively to the profitability of the company in terms of its materials purchases and production.
- The company can attain effectively its set out material procurement and production goals and objectives in the most cost effective manner only when a properly organized and coordinated value analysis and value engineering programme is adopted
- Value analysis programme has coordinated periodically the combined efforts and talents of personnels in purchasing, production, design and engineering, quality and control to conduct a meticulous investigation and review the components and materials used in the organization on products and processes to improve the existing rather than new specifications. It provides a means of considering all alternative atmosphere of open thinking and analysis.
- Value analysis if properly applied will go a long way in eliminating unnecessary design feature which add to cost but do not contribute to value and as a result lead to a drastic reduction in the cost of existing products and services.
- It identifies in advance unnecessary cost of new products and eliminate them and thereby improve the overall product value.
- With an effective value analysis programme organizations like Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri have been able to reduce the risk of consequences of unnecessary cost on their products. Value analysis recognizes the fact that earlier design decisions must be evaluated after a product has been used by the customers.
Following the factors noticed against the smooth execution of value analysis and value engineering in Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri, the researcher hereby recommends that:
- There should be sufficient top management involvement in the value analysis programme in the company because the are responsible for its approval before it is carried out.
- Purchasing as the most cost conscious department in any company and who is capable of meeting the quality requirement should be given authority to control and challenge wasteful and avoidable cost inherent in the materials the buy for the company.
- The company should ensure that only suppliers who are capable of meeting the requirement should be selected. Such suppliers should also be involved in the value analysis programme by giving suggestions from their technical knowledge about the products and items they deal in and its potential capabilities.
- Public awareness among bottling companies should be awakened through seminars and public lectures as to the positive contribution of a well organized value analysis and value engineering programme.
- Management should find a way of helping their suppliers develop, either by selling them some ideas on value analysis or even granting them financial assistance. This will enable them improve their quality performance.
- The company should introduce the material management concept, which is the unification of all material activities under one department and headed by material manager such functions should include purchasing, stores, shipping and clearing, transportation.
- The purchasing department in the company should be tasked with the responsibility of carrying out a supply market research in order to locate various sources of material supply. This will go a long way to enhance alternative reliable buying.
- There should be a continuous liaison between purchasing, design and engineering, production, quality and control departments to investigate and review the components and materials used in the company. This will enable them detect unnecessary product feature which could lead to incurring cost.
- The idea of changing suppliers every year as soon as materials received fall short of expectation should be reviewed. Rather a long standing relationship should be built between the organization and its suppliers with a view to benefiting from each other experiences and suggestions.
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